Tensile Testing of Steel...

Tensile Testing of Steel Sample of steel is subjected to a wide variety of mechanical tests to measure their strength, elastic constants, and other material properties as well as their performance under a variety of actual use conditions and environments. Tensile test is one of them. Other tests are hardness test, impact test, fatigue test, and fracture test. These mechanical tests are used to measure how a sample of steel withstands an applied mechanical force. The results of such tests are used for two primary purposes namely (i) engineering design (e.g. failure theories based on strength, or deflections based on elastic constants and component geometry), and (ii) quality control either by the producer of steel to verify the process or by the end user to confirm the material specifications. Uniaxial tensile test is known as a basic and universal engineering test to achieve material parameters such as ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), % elongation, % area of reduction and young’s modulus. Tensile testing is done for many reasons. The results of tensile tests are used in selecting materials for engineering applications. Tensile properties are often included in material specifications to ensure quality. Tensile properties are also normally measured during development of new materials and processes, so that different materials and processes can be compared. Also, tensile properties are generally used to predict the behaviour of a material under forms of loading other than uniaxial tension. Safely withstanding the expected maximum load without permanent deformation (or to stay within the specified deflection) is a basic requirement for a steel product. The ‘resistance’ against the load is a function of the cross-section and the mechanical properties (or in other words the ‘strength’) of the steel material. Tensile testing is done to determine the mechanical...

Behaviour of Iron and Steel Materials during Tensile Testing Aug28

Behaviour of Iron and Steel Materials during Tensile Testing...

Behaviour of Iron and Steel Materials during Tensile Testing The mechanical properties of iron and steels are often assessed through tensile testing. The testing technique is well standardized and can be conducted economically with a minimum of equipment. Since iron and steel materials are being utilized in structural applications, they are to have tensile properties which meet the requirements of the relevant codes and standards. These requirements in the code and standards are the minimum strength and ductility levels. Due to this, information available from tensile testing is often underutilized. However, direct examination of many of the metallurgical interactions which influence the results of tensile testing can considerably improve the usefulness of the testing data. Examination of these interactions, and correlation with metallurgical / material /application variables such as heat treatment, surface finish, test environment, stress state, and anticipated thermo-mechanical exposures, can lead to significant improvements in both the efficiency and the quality of utilization of iron and steel materials in the engineering applications. Tensile testing of iron and steel materials is done for many reasons. Tensile properties are normally included in material specification to ensure quality and are often used to predict the behaviour of these materials during different forms of loading other than uniaxial tension. The result of tensile testing is normally used in the selection of these materials for engineering uses. It provides a relatively easy and cheap technique for developing mechanical property data for the selection, qualification, and utilization of these materials in engineering applications. This data is generally used to establish the suitability of these materials for a particular application, and/or to provide a basis for comparison with other substitute materials. The elastic moduli of iron and steel materials are dependent on the rate at which the test sample...

Mechanical Properties of Steels...

Mechanical Properties of Steels The most important properties of steels which account for their widespread use are their mechanical properties. These properties include a combination of very high strength with the ability to bend rather than break. Different tests have been developed to describe the strength and ductility (a measure of bendability) of steels. A number of these tests which are used to describe the mechanical properties of steels are described below. Tensile testing Tensile testing of steel is a kind of a testing done for the evaluation of the strength of steels. A length of the steel material, usually a round cylindrical rod, is pulled apart in a machine that applies a known force, F. The machine has grips which are attached to the ends of the cylindrical steel rod, and the force is applied parallel to the axis of the rod, as shown schematically in Fig 1. As the force increases, the rod gets longer, and the change in length is represented as delta l (? l), where the symbol delta (?) means ‘a change in’ and the l refers to the original length of the rod. If a force of 50 kg is applied to two rods of the same steel material, where one is thin and the other thick then the thin rod elongate more. To compare their mechanical properties independent of rod diameter, the term ‘stress’ is used. Stress is simply the force divided by the cross-sectional area of the rod. When the same stress is applied to the thin and thick rods, they elongate the same amount, because the actual force applied to the thick rod is now larger than that applied to the thin rod by an amount proportional to its larger area. Because stress is force...

Chains and their Types...

Chains and their Types A chain is a series of connected links which are typically made of metal. A chain may consist of two or more links. Chains can be classified in many different ways. From a theoretical viewpoint, a chain is a continuous flexible rack engaging the teeth on a pair of gears. A sprocket, being a toothed wheel whose teeth are shaped to mesh with a chain, is a form of gear. From a viewpoint based on its history and development, chain is a mechanical belt running over sprockets that can be used to transmit power or convey materials. Chains have the following four basic functions. Transmit power. Convey objects or materials. Convert rotary motion to linear motion, or linear motion to rotary motion. Synchronize or to time motion Chains have the following general advantages over other equipment intended to do the same functions. Have controlled flexibility in only one plane. Have a positive action over sprockets, no slippage takes place. Carry very heavy loads with little stretch. Efficiency of a chain joint passing around a sprocket approaches 100 % because of the large internal mechanical advantages of links in flexure. Provide extended wear life because flexure takes place between bearing surfaces with high hardness designed specifically to resist wear. Can be operated satisfactorily in adverse environments, such as under high temperatures or where they are subject to moisture or foreign materials. Can be manufactured from special steels to resist specific environments. Have an unlimited shelf life. They do not deteriorate with age or with sun, oil, or grease. Types of chains From industry stand point, the major types of chains are (i) roller chains, (ii) leaf chains, (iii) silent chains, (iv) engineering steel chains, and (v) flat-top chains. (Fig 1) Fig 1 Types...

Properties of Steels

Properties of Steels When selecting a steel material for a particular application, user has to be confident that it will be suitable for the loading conditions and environmental challenges it will be subjected to while in service. Understanding and control of the properties of the steel material is therefore necessary. Further properties of steel can be controlled through different processes such as hot and cold working, heat treatment etc. There are many measurement systems used to define the properties of given steel. These measurement systems normally come under four categories. These are physical properties, chemical properties, microstructural properties and mechanical properties.  Physical properties of steels The physical properties of steel are related to the physics of the material, such as density, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poison’s ratio etc. Typical physical properties of steels are given in Tab 1. Tab1 Physical properties of steels           Properties Carbon steels Alloy steels Stainless steels Tool steels Density (tons/Cum) 7.85 7.85 7.75-8.1 7.72-8.0 Elastic modulus (GPa) 190-210 190-210 190-210 190-210 Poisson’s ratio 0.27-0.3 0.27-0.3 0.27-0.3 0.27-0.3 Thermal expansion (10-6/K) 11-16.6 9.0-15 9.0-20.7 9.4-15.1 Melting point (deg C) 1371-1540 Thermal conductivity (W/m-K) 24.3-65.2 26-48.6 11.2-36.7 19.9-48.3 Specific heat (J/kg-K) 450-2081 452-1499 420-500   Electrical resistivity (10-9W-m) 130-1250 210-1251 75.7-1020   Chemical properties of steels Iron is the basic component of steel. When carbon (C), a nonmetal, is added to iron (Fe) in amounts up to 2.0 %, the result is an alloy known as steel. Composition of steel mainly consists of iron and other elements such as carbon, manganese, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and alloying elements. A large number of elements in wide ranging percentages are used for the purpose of alloying of steels. Variations in chemical composition of steels are responsible for a great variety...