Management of the Process Productivity...

Management of the Process Productivity A process can be defined as a set of horizontal sequence of interrelated or interacting activities, which transforms inputs (needs) into outputs (results) for meeting the needs of customers or stakeholders. Inputs and intended outputs of a process can be tangible (such as equipment, materials or components) or intangible (such as energy or information). Outputs can also be unintended, such as waste or pollution.  The process needs a resource that provides the needed energy to the process for the transformation from the input to output to occur. Each process has customers and other interested parties (who may be either internal or external to the organization), with needs and expectations about the process, who define the required outputs of the process. A process is an interacting combination at any level of complexity, of people, materials, tools, machines, automation, software facilities, and procedures designed to work together for the common purpose of producing product of that quality which is needed by the customer. The process is central to the production system in the organization (Fig 1). The process instills quality in the product. Fig 1 Process of a production system The objectives of a process are normally (i) low cost operation, (ii) high performance, (iii) consistent product quality, (iv) high productivity level, (v) high yield, and (vi) product customization. An organization to function has several processes. The organization can reach its goals and objectives in an efficient and effective manner only if all the processes operate at a high level of productivity. Productivity is the quality or state of being productive. It is the measure of how specified resources are managed to accomplish timely objectives stated in terms of quality and quantity. It indicates how well the resources such as materials,...

Importance of Housekeeping and Cleanliness at Workplace...

Importance of Housekeeping and Cleanliness at Workplace Housekeeping and cleanliness at the workplace are closely linked to the industrial safety. The degree, to which these activities are effectively managed, is an indicator of the safety culture of the organization. Housekeeping and cleanliness not only make the organization a safer place to work in but also provide a big boost to the image of the organization. These activities also (i) improve efficiency and productivity, (ii) helps in maintaining good control over the processes, and (iii) assist in maintaining the quality of the product. These important aspects of housekeeping and cleanliness are shown in Fig 1. Fig1 Important aspects of housekeeping and cleanliness There are several signs which reflect poor housekeeping and cleanliness at the workplace in the organization. Some of these signs are (i) cluttered and poorly arranged work areas, (ii) untidy or dangerous storage of materials (such as materials stuffed in corners and overcrowded shelves etc.), (iii) dusty and dirty floors and work surfaces, (iv) items lying on the shop floor which are in excess or no longer needed, (v) blocked or cluttered aisles and exits, (vi) tools and equipment left in work areas instead of being returned to proper storage places, (vii) broken containers and damaged materials, (vii) overflowing waste bins and containers, and (viii) spills and leaks etc. Housekeeping and cleanliness refer to the processes which ensure facilities, equipment, work areas and access routes are kept in good condition. This condition is required for supporting safe and reliable operation and maintenance during normal plant operation. Additionally, during the emergency, housekeeping and cleanliness ensure that the plant operations are not inhibited. Further, the housekeeping and cleanliness both are interrelated. Reaching a good standard in one of them is difficult without reaching a good...

Managing Fatigue at the Workplace...

Managing Fatigue at the Workplace Fatigue is a physical and/or mental state caused by overexertion. It is an acute, ongoing state of tiredness that leads to mental or physical exhaustion and prevents people from functioning within normal boundaries. It is more than feeling tired and drowsy. It is a physical condition that can occur when a person’s physical or mental limits are reached. Fatigue can be caused by factors which may be work related, non-work related or a combination of both and can accumulate over time. In a work context, fatigue reduces an employee’s ability to perform work safely and effectively. It reduces the employee’s capabilities to an extent that may impair his strength, speed, reaction time, coordination, decision making, or balance. It can occur because of prolonged mental or physical activity, sleep loss and/or disruption of the internal body clock. Fatigue is caused by prolonged periods of physical and/or mental exertion without enough time to rest and recover. It is a catch-all term for a variety of symptoms, ranging from muscle pain to difficulty in concentrating, or sleepiness. It can compromise health and safety at work and is a common outcome of stress and shift-work. Fatigue is defined as ‘the temporary inability, or decrease in ability, or strong disinclination to respond to a situation, because of inadequate recuperation from previous over-activity which can be either mental, or emotional, or physical’. Fatigue can be considered as local or general, acute or chronic. Acute fatigue is the result of sudden and/or severe exposure or onset, while chronic fatigue usually develops after longer exposures, often of a significantly smaller intensity than present in acute fatigue. Chronic fatigue develops slowly. A common symptom of fatigue is an unpleasant, general sensation of weariness. Other outcomes of fatigue include...

Development of Talent in the Organization...

Development of Talent in the Organization Building of the bench strength for the future is something which no organization can afford to ignore. With the competition steadily increasing and the present trends indicating that the talent pool is going to decrease, no organization can afford to ignore the identification and development of the talent of their employees. Given the ease with which business models can be copied, it is only the people of the organization along with their ability to learn and lead are the only sustainable source of competitive advantage for the organization. Talent development focuses on the planning, selection and implementation of development strategies for the organizational employees to ensure that the organization has both the current and future supply of talented employees to meet its strategic objectives and that development activities are aligned with organizational talent management processes. The organization which desires to sustain its success must have the best talented employees in order to succeed in the hypercompetitive and increasingly complex present day economy. Along with the understanding of the need to hire, develop, and retain talented people, the organization is to be aware that it must manage talent as a critical resource to achieve the best possible results. For managing talent The organization is to develop the capabilities of employees, nurture their careers, and manage the performance of individuals and teams. Organizational restructuring, globalization and competition highlight the need for both the organization and individual employees to be focused on investment in learning. Organizational talent development process almost invariably focuses on organizational needs and is an investment for meeting these needs. Organizational driven talent development focuses on a multiplicity of organizational needs such as succession planning, the achievement of business strategy, and the enhancement of leadership bench strength and...

Management of Safety in an Iron and Steel Plant...

Management of Safety in an Iron and Steel Plant Iron and steel industry is a combination of complex processes and large scale operations. Its processes are extremely hazardous in nature. There are potential dangers inherent in the industry’s working environment and to which its employees are exposed, unless suitable and stringent precautions are observed. In the absence of suitable and stringent precautions, operations in the iron and steel industry expose employees to a wide range of hazards or workplace activities or conditions that can cause incidents, injury, death, ill health or diseases. The unsafe acts, accidents, and related outcomes are mainly due to three general causes (Fig 1), namely (i) causes involving the person, (ii) causes involving the system, and (iii) causes involving system–person sequential interrelationships. Fig 1 Causes for unsafe acts and accidents In the unsafe acts with person-as-cause, the employee attitudes and behaviours are the most important antecedents to unsafe acts, accidents, injuries, and other outcomes such as compensation claims. The employees who have the worst attitudes are the most likely to have accidents. However, the tendency to engage in at-risk behaviours in work settings can be reduced through training and behavioral reinforcement. The system based viewpoint emphasizes technical system factors as the primary determinants of workplace accidents. The unsafe acts due to operator error are very frequently have their true roots in system design. In these cases, many of the unsafe acts ranging from quality errors to major disasters, can be traced to system design and process management. Hence in these cases there is a need for correction in the system and design. In the case of the unsafe act due to system–person sequential interrelationships, the role of organizational climate (a social system variable) and the technical attributes of the system...