ULCORED Process Mar18

ULCORED Process

ULCORED Process ULCORED is a direct reduction (DR) process, which produces DRI (direct reduced iron) in a shaft furnace, either from natural gas (NG) or from reducing gas obtained by gasification of coal. Off-gas from the shaft is recycled into the process after carbon di-oxide (CO2) has been captured, which leaves the DR plant in a concentrated stream and goes to storage. The DRI step produces a solid product which is then melted using an electric arc furnace (EAF). The process was designed mainly in 2006 by a team led by LKAB, Voest-alpine and MEFOS. The objective of the ULCORED process was to reduce the NG consumption needed to produce DRI. It was achieved by replacing traditional reforming technology with partial oxidation (POx) of NG. Combined with CCS device, ULCORED can reduce 70 % CO2 emission compared with the average in the BF route. The concept of the ULCORED process involves separating CO2 out of the process gas. It is characterized by an effort to adopt gas based DR process to a minimized emission of green- house gases (GHG), using CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology and at the same time to a minimized use of energy. The process is designed in a way which allows for the extraction and storage of CO2. The process is therefore also dependent on CCS with a similar in-process capture. The process is based on the utilization of a shifter to convert the carbon monoxide (CO) gas from the shaft to hydrogen (H2) together with a CO2 removal unit. This opens up a new innovative evolution of the process concept. The main features of the ULCORED DR process include (i) use of oxygen (O2) instead of air resulting into an off gas of nearly 100 % CO2 which...

Ultra Low Carbon Dioxide Steelmaking – ULCOS Jul26

Ultra Low Carbon Dioxide Steelmaking – ULCOS...

Ultra Low Carbon Dioxide Steelmaking – ULCOS  Climate change has been identified by the steel industry around the world as a major environmental challenge for more than two and a half decades. Long before the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007, major steel producers recognized that long term solutions were needed to tackle the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced during the production of steel. As a result, the steel industry has been highly proactive in improving energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The greenhouse gas of most relevance to the world steel industry is carbon dioxide (CO2). As per World Steel Association (WSA), on average, 1.8 tons of CO2 gas are emitted for every ton of steel produced. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), in 2010 the iron and steel industry accounted for approximately 6.7 % of total world CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions per ton of crude steel produced are now around 50 % lower which has resulted into a dramatic reduction in climate impact for the steel sector. The best steel plants now operate close to the thermodynamics limits set by present steel production technologies. This in turn means that steel producers are limited in how much further they can improve their energy efficiency. With most major energy savings already achieved, additional large reductions in CO2 emissions are not possible using present technologies. Decreasing of the GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions further have meant introduction of breakthrough technologies. The reduction of CO2 emissions to the level that post-Kyoto policies have required ‘out of box’ thinking since it has raised specific challenges. No simple processes have been available off-the-shelf for the accomplishment of this objective. Deep paradigm shifts in the way steel is produced has to be imagined and...