Steel and its types

Steel and its types Steel is basically an alloy of iron and carbon to which sometimes other elements are added to achieve certain properties for specific performance of the steel. It is the most common material which the people come into contact with every moment, all the day and every day. There is hardly any object that people use today which does not contain steel or which is not created with equipment made of steel. In fact, today it is hard to imagine a life without the use of steel in some shape or form.  One has to just think of what would be missing in everyday life if there is no steel. Mass production of steel started late in the nineteenth century. From that time onwards steel has become the material of choice in most of the applications which make the daily lives of the people possible. This position of steel is due to its versatility, strength, and recyclability. The versatility of steel is well known. It can be used in diverse applications which includes transportation, infrastructure, building structures etc. on one side and sewing needles, screws for laptops, mother board sheets for mobile phones, springs for wrist watches and many others such smaller applications. Ballpoint pens rely on a steel sphere less than 1 mm in diameter to dispense ink. Steel can also be used in a wide variety of atmospheres which include extremes of cold and hot climates as well as in both arid and wet climates. World today depends on the strength of steel. Steel makes it possible to build skyscrapers and long span bridges since it has strength, rigidity and durability. Tankers and bulk carriers which help in moving resources across the world are made of steel. Wind mills...

Production of Tin Plates and Tin Free Steel Oct04

Production of Tin Plates and Tin Free Steel...

Production of Tin Plates and Tin Free Steel  Tin coating is the process of thinly coating sheets of steel with tin (Sn), and the resulting product is known as tinplate. It is most often used to prevent rust. The sheet of steel on which the tin coating is done is known as black plate. When chromium (Cr) and chromium oxides is used for coating in place of tin then the coated sheet is known as tin free steel. Tin free steel is produced by applying electrolytic chromic acid treatment over steel sheets. On tin free steel sometimes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polypropylene films are laminated in order to eliminate the painting and cleaning processes when using tin free steel. History The tinplate industry is founded on the invention of the process of preserving sterilized food for long periods of time by Nicolas Appert in 1810. The Appert process was adapted to the preservation of food in tinplate containers by John Hall in 1812 in London. By the 1820s, canned foods were widely sold in UK and France, and by 1839, foods were being canned in the USA. Starting in the 1880s, a series of technical innovations which took place has transformed the tinplate industry. These included the replacement of wrought iron with steel black plate in about 1880, the development of continuous cold reduction in 1927 that eliminated hot pack rolling, the introduction of continuous electro tinning on a small scale in Germany in 1934 and on a commercial scale in the USA in 1937 which replaced the hot dip process, the invention of double cold reduction in 1960, and the invention of tin free steel in the early 1960s in Japan and the USA. Presently there are two processes for the tinning of the black plates namely...