Introduction to the Characteristics of Refractories and Refractory materials...

Introduction to the Characteristics of Refractories and Refractory materials A suitable selection of the refractory lining material for a furnace can only be made with an accurate knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of the refractories and refractory materials, and of the stresses of the materials during service. There are four types of stresses which refractories face during their period of service. These are given below: Thermal – The important properties for thermal stresses are pyrometric cone equivalent (PCE), refractoriness under load (RUL), Thermal expansion under load (creep), hot modulus of rupture, thermal expansion, reheat change (after-shrinkage and after-expansion) and thermal shock resistance. Thermo-technical – The important properties for thermo-technical stresses are thermal conductivity, specific heat, bulk density, melting point, thermal capacity and temperature conductivity. Mechanical – The important properties for mechanical stresses are cold modulus of rupture and deformation modulus, crushing strength, abrasion resistance, porosity and density. Chemical – The important properties for chemical stresses are chemical composition, mineralogical composition and crystal formation, pore size distribution and types of pores, gas permeability and resistance to slag, glass melts, gases and vapours. Some of the important physical and chemical properties are given below: Melting point – Melting point (melting temperatures) specify the ability of materials to withstand high temperatures without chemical change and physical destruction. The melting points of major elements that constitute refractory composition in pure state vary from 1700 deg C to 3480 deg C. The melting point serves as a sufficient basis for considering the thermal stability of refractory mixtures and is an important characteristic indicating the maximum temperature of use. Size and dimensional stability – The size and shape of the refractories is an important feature in design since it affects the stability of any structure. Dimensional accuracy and...