Management Information System...

Management Information System  Management information system (MIS) is a planned system for collecting, storing, and disseminating data in the form information needed to carry out the functions of the management. It provides information that organization requires to manage itself efficiently and effectively. MIS deals with information related to technologies, processes, operation, personnel, areas, and other things, within an organization and in the environment surrounding the organization. Information means data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to the management and employees of the organization. Data, in contrast, are streams of raw facts representing technologies, processes, operation, personnel, areas, and other things occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that management and employees can understand and use. Typical features of an MIS is shown in Fig 1 Fig 1 Typical features of an MIS  Management information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision making, coordination and control in an organization. In addition to supporting decision making, coordination, and control, MIS may also help management and employees to analyze problems, to visualize complex subjects, and to bring forward new solutions. Management information system is also defined as an information system that evaluates, analyzes and processes an organization’s data to produce meaningful and useful information on which the management takes right decision to ensure success and future growth of the organization. As per another definition MIS is an information system that provides information in the form of standardized reports and displays for the management. MIS is a broad class of information systems designed to provide information needed for effective decision making.  The three components in MIS gives...

System audits and the process of auditing...

System audits and the process of auditing  System audits are one of the key management tools for achieving the objectives set out in the policy of the organization. A system audit is a disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of a system. Audits are carried out in order to verify that the individual elements within the system are effective and suitable in achieving the stated objectives. The system audit also provides objective evidence concerning the need for the reduction, elimination and most importantly, prevention of non conformities. The results of these audits can be used by the management for improving the performance of the organization. System audits are carried out by the trained auditors who can be organization own staff or staff of an external auditing agency or independent professional auditors. They are carried out by looking up for objective evidence. Definition System audit is defined as “A systematic and independent examination to determine whether activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.” System audit is also defined as “A systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria are fulfilled.”  Audit objectives  System audits are usually carried out for the following objectives. To evaluate the organization system against a system standard To determine the conformity or non conformity of the system elements with the specified requirements To determine the effectiveness of the implemented system in meeting the specified objectives To offer an opportunity for improvement in the system To meet statutory and regulatory requirements In the latest approach to the systems audit, the auditors are expected to go beyond mere auditing for the compliance by focusing on risk,...