Manganese in Steels

Manganese in Steels  Manganese (Mn) (atomic number 25 and atomic weight 54.93) has density of 7.44 gm/cc. Melting point of Mn is 1244 deg C and boiling point is 2095 deg C. The phase diagram of the Fe-Mn binary system is at Fig 1. Fig 1 Fe-Mn phase diagram  Mn is present in most commercially made steels. Mn plays a key role in steel because of its two important properties namely (i) its ability to combine with sulphur (S), and (ii) its powerful deoxidation capacity. Mn is undoubtedly the most prevalent alloying agent in steels, after carbon (C). Mn is intentionally present in many grades of steel and is a residual constituent of virtually all others. Mn has played a key role in the development of various steel making processes and its continuing importance is indicated by the fact that about 85 % to 90 % of all Mn consumed in the world annually goes into iron and steel making as well as in steel as an alloying element. No satisfactory substitute for Mn in steel has been identified which combines its relatively low price with outstanding technical benefits. Available forms Mn is used in steel industry in an extensive variety of product forms. These can be classified into three major groups namely (i) ferro-manganese (Fe-Mn), (ii) silico-manganese (Si-Mn), and (iii) Mn ore. There are several standard grades within each group. Fe-Mn and Si-Mn are used mainly during steel making while Mn ore is mainly used in iron making. Types of Fe-Mn and Si-Mn produced are given in article having link http://ispatguru.com/717/. High density Mn containing 96 % or 97 % Mn, depending on grade and Iron (Fe) as the principal impurity, is also used as a desirable addition agent for super alloys, stainless...