Steels as a Material for Rail Tracks...

Steels as a Material for Rail Tracks Railways were originally uniquely identified with the material of their initial construction and now are technically identified by the characteristic contact of ?steel wheel on steel rail?. The phrase ?Railways need steel ? steel needs railways?, defines the relationship between steel industry and the railways. Presently railways rely on a wide variety of steels for its materials requirement. It is since steel meets the requirements of cost, weight, reliability, crashworthiness, maintainability and inspection required by the railways. Large varieties of steels are used by railways for its requirement for (i) rolling stock (locomotives, coaches, and wagons), (ii) rail tracks (permanent way), (ii) electric traction, and (iv) infrastructure. A wide variety of steels is needed by railways. These include flat products, structural products, bar and wire products, special products like rails, wheels and axles, tubular products and steels for reinforcement. Steels required by railways are in the form of castings, rolled products and fabricates products. The quality of steels needed by railways varies with the application. The quality of steels used are mild steel, other plain carbon steels, alloy steels, high strength steels, wear resistant steels, corrosion resistant steels, spring steels, electrical steels, and stainless steels etc. Further some steels need special processing to meet the specific requirements of railways. The requirement of various steels is getting updated on a continuous basis with the advancement of rail engineering. For this, railways and the steel industry work in close co-ordination with each other. The rail track is known as a stable structure. It ensures the transportation of trains through providing a dependable surface for their wheels. As to the development of rail track, it has a long history. The first rail track was made of wood and had continued...

Spring Steels

Spring Steels Springs are fundamental mechanical components found in many mechanical systems. Steel is an important engineering material for the manufacture of high strength components of any mechanical system. Technically spring is an elastic component which is able to store an applied force effect. A very high degree of quality, reliability and service life is expected in springs since it is vital for the functioning of the mechanical system. The spring’s capacity to take on static and dynamic loads over an extended period of time depends on the steel that goes into its making. Steel material for the production of the springs is generally called spring steel. Spring steels feature the unique characteristic of being able to withstand considerable twisting or bending forces without any distortion. Products made from these steels can be bent, compressed, extended, or twisted continuously, and they will return to their original shape without suffering any deformation. This characteristic is defined as high yield strength and is the result of the specific composition and hardening of the steels. Spring steels are stainless, low alloy, medium or carbon steels manufactured to very high yield strengths. Spring steels are also used when there are special requirements on rigidity or abrasion resistance. Spring steels are to meet the following requirements from the technical point of view. High elastic limit – It is the tension that can be applied on the material without a plastic deformation. High ultimate strain – It is the value of the extension until rupture in relation to the original length. High contraction at fracture – It is the change of the original cross section in comparison to the cross section at rupture. Good creep rupture strength – It is a kind of tensile strength taking in account temperature and...