Safety in Rolling Mills...

Safety in Rolling Mills Worldwide, as the rolling speeds are increasing, greater emphasis is being placed on the aspects of safety while designing the mill equipment as well as during the finalization of the mill layouts. Providing high importance to safety is in the best interest of the designers, manufacturers and the users of the rolling mills. Safeguarding of the mill equipment is necessary for ensuring the safe working of the rolling mill after its commissioning. Manufacturers of the rolling mills have the objective to produce a competitive mill, while users desire to have a highly productive mill. However, before any of these objectives can be met, both the manufacturer and the user are to first determine how to engineer the mill using safe design principles to minimize operator’s risks. Investing in a safer workplace also reduces the expenses of treating injured workers, helps preventing workplace accidents besides boosting employees’ morale by conveying the message that the organization cares about its employees and wants to protect their health and safety. A brief overview of safety requirements for the equipment of rolling mill is given below. Common safety related definitions Safety is the ability of the equipment to perform its function while being transported, installed, adjusted, operated, maintained, dismantled, and disposed of under conditions of intended use specified in the instruction manual without causing injury or damage to health of the people carrying out these functions. Risk is a comprehensive estimate of the probability and the degree of the possible injury or damage to the health in a hazardous situation in order to select appropriate safety measures. Hazard is a condition or set of circumstances which can cause physical harm to the exposed personnel. Danger zone is any zone within or around the equipment in...

Standardization and the Process of Standardization...

Standardization and the Process of Standardization There is practically no economic activity nowadays which is not outlined, whether partly or totally, by the process of standardization. The worldwide acceptance of standardization is closely related to the economic globalization and the transformation of regulatory processes at the national, regional, and international levels. Standardization helps in reducing, simplifying, and organizing matters which are apt to become diversified, complicated, and chaotic if left uncontrolled. It is the process of formulating, issuing, and implementing standards. Standardization creates value at many levels. The output of the process of standardization is the creation of standards. The development of standardization as an engineering activity was pioneered in 1793 by Eli Whitney. Standardization of screw threads by Sir Joseph Whitworth dates back to 1841. Other instances of early standardization can be found during the emergence of the railway industry. Mass production became possible only through standardization. By the turn of the 19th century, standardization was already recognized in industrialized countries as a powerful tool to increase productivity through interchangeability and reduction of variety. The early part of the 20th century saw the establishment of several standardization organizations, which turned standardization into an organized and ongoing effort for industrial applications. By 1928, national standards organizations had been established in 16 industrialized countries. After the First World War, standardization, through reduction in variety, was established as a useful management tool for reducing costs. Some three decades later, seller market conditions, which prevailed for some time after the Second World War, put consumer interest under threat. To safeguard this interest and to meet the rising demand for standards for finished products, standardization activities increased in various countries, with the additional support and involvement of government and industry Definitions of standardization The standardization process is often...

Importance of Housekeeping and Cleanliness at Workplace...

Importance of Housekeeping and Cleanliness at Workplace Housekeeping and cleanliness at the workplace are closely linked to the industrial safety. The degree, to which these activities are effectively managed, is an indicator of the safety culture of the organization. Housekeeping and cleanliness not only make the organization a safer place to work in but also provide a big boost to the image of the organization. These activities also (i) improve efficiency and productivity, (ii) helps in maintaining good control over the processes, and (iii) assist in maintaining the quality of the product. These important aspects of housekeeping and cleanliness are shown in Fig 1. Fig1 Important aspects of housekeeping and cleanliness There are several signs which reflect poor housekeeping and cleanliness at the workplace in the organization. Some of these signs are (i) cluttered and poorly arranged work areas, (ii) untidy or dangerous storage of materials (such as materials stuffed in corners and overcrowded shelves etc.), (iii) dusty and dirty floors and work surfaces, (iv) items lying on the shop floor which are in excess or no longer needed, (v) blocked or cluttered aisles and exits, (vi) tools and equipment left in work areas instead of being returned to proper storage places, (vii) broken containers and damaged materials, (vii) overflowing waste bins and containers, and (viii) spills and leaks etc. Housekeeping and cleanliness refer to the processes which ensure facilities, equipment, work areas and access routes are kept in good condition. This condition is required for supporting safe and reliable operation and maintenance during normal plant operation. Additionally, during the emergency, housekeeping and cleanliness ensure that the plant operations are not inhibited. Further, the housekeeping and cleanliness both are interrelated. Reaching a good standard in one of them is difficult without reaching a good...

Operational Discipline in Steel Industry...

Operational Discipline in Steel Industry Operational discipline means complying with a set of ‘well thought out’ and ‘well defined’ processes, and consistently executing them correctly. Striving to achieve operational excellence is one of the most important contributors to the steel industry’s sustainable performance and growth. Steel organization which reach for a higher level of operational excellence reap numerous benefits namely (i) a systemic, evolving and effective approach to its operations (ii) a continually productive and innovative workforce, and (iii) an organization which consistently achieves sustainable growth and increasing valuation. It is not uncommon to confuse operational discipline with operational excellence. While the two are closely linked, yet the latter cannot be realized without the former.  Operational discipline is but one important component among others which one can find on the path of the operational excellence. DuPont defines operational discipline as ‘the deeply rooted dedication and commitment by every member of an organization to carry out each task the right way every time’. In short, operational discipline can be stated as ‘everyone in the organization doing it right every time’. It means complying with a set of well thought out and well defined processes, and consistently executing them correctly. It is an essential ingredient when trying to achieve operational excellence. Operational discipline provides an organized and systematic way to complete tasks and implement operational changes through a fundamental set of procedures which are specific to the steel organization’s unique product. Regardless of the final products of the steel plant, operational discipline increases reliability and decreases the risk of the occurrence of a high magnitude incident. This is much easier said than done. However, building a culture in the organization around the pillars of operational discipline is the most effective way towards the achievement of this...

Management of an Organization and Management Techniques...

Management of an Organization and Management Techniques Management of an organization is not a simple activity. On the contrary it is quite complex. Both internal and external factors affect the organizational functioning. Further there are several areas and elements which are required to be managed. Sometimes functioning of an area may appear to be in conflict with the functioning of other area. Smooth functioning of the organization depends on how the management of these different areas and elements are conducted. There are specific management techniques for each area and element. There are other techniques which may encompass entire organization. If these techniques are followed, it aids the proper and healthy functioning of the organization. Management of an organization (Fig 1) can be broadly divided into two areas. These areas of management are (i) management of organizational internal elements which have impact on the organizational functioning, and (ii) management of organizational functions where the organization comes in contact with external agencies. Internal organizational elements for management normally include (i) operational management which is the key to the existence of the organization, (ii) financial management for making the organization healthy financially, (iii) human resource management which deals with the management and development of the employees, (iv) management of organizational future which takes care for the future of the organization in the context of fast changing environment, and (v) management of safety, security and welfare which takes care of the employees’ safety, protection of the organizational properties and the external needs of the employees. Organizational functions involving external agencies are (i) sales and purchase functions involving customers and suppliers, (ii) complying with regulations and laws where the organization comes in touch with regulatory authorities and government, (iii) societal functions where the organization comes in touch with society,...