Combustion System of a Reheating Furnace Jul01

Combustion System of a Reheating Furnace...

Combustion System of a Reheating Furnace The main function of a reheating furnace is to raise the temperature of the semi-finished steels (billets, blooms, slabs or rounds) typically to temperatures between 1000 deg C and 1250 deg C, until it is plastic enough to be rolled to the desired section, size or shape in the hot rolling mill. The reheating furnace must also meet specific requirements and objectives in terms of the heating rates for metallurgical and productivity reasons. In the reheating furnace there is a continuous flow of material which is heated to the desired temperature as it travels through the furnace. Hot rolling operations require high quality reheated semi-finished steels at the lowest possible cost and at the optimal production rate of the rolling mill. The reheating furnaces used for heating the semi-finished steels in a hot rolling mill consume a large quantity of the energy and simultaneously generate large quantity of pollutants. Because of this, there is a necessity to look into the ways for the reduction of energy consumption as well as pollutants and hence the costs. This can be done by improving the fuel efficiency of the reheating furnaces. The combustion system of the reheating furnace has a major influence on both the quality of the reheated semi-finished steel product and on the amount of fuel needed for the reheating. The important expectations from a reheating furnace today are not only to lower the emission of the pollutants and the energy consumption, but also to have the improved high quality of the heated steel product, reliability, uniform temperature, heat flux and safety of the equipment and personnel. All these are the key factors which have considerable effect on the combustion system of the reheating furnace. The three basic things...

Recovery of Waste Heat Jan02

Recovery of Waste Heat...

Recovery of Waste Heat  Waste heat is the heat which is generated in a process due to the combustion of fuel or due to a chemical reaction and then discharged into the environment without being put to practical use. Sources of waste heat include hot combustion gases discharged into the atmosphere, process off  gases, conductive, convective and radiative losses from equipment and the heated products leaving various  industrial processes (hot coke, hot metal, liquid steel, and hot rolled product etc.), and heat transfer from hot equipment surfaces (heat transferred to cooling water). Waste heat recovery consists of the capture and reuse of the waste heat of the industrial processes for heating or for generating mechanical or electrical work. Typical uses include combustion air preheating, preheating of fuel gas, boiler feed water preheating, raw material preheating, generation of process steam, and production of steam for power generation etc. The basic idea behind the recovery of the waste heat is to try to recover maximum amounts of heat in the plant and to reuse it as much as possible, instead of just releasing it into the environment (air or a nearby river). Waste heat is intrinsic to all manufacturing processes. During the industrial manufacturing processes, around 20 % to 50 % of the energy consumed is ultimately lost via waste heat contained in streams of hot exhaust gases and liquids, as well as through heat conduction, convection, and radiation from the surface of the hot equipments as well as from the heated products. Waste heat recovery is a valuable alternative approach for improving overall energy efficiency improvements of the industrial furnaces. Energy efficiency  which can be achieved through waste heat recovery is normally in the range of 10 % to 50 %. The essential fact is...