Iron and Types of Iron...

Iron and Types of Iron Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin word Ferrum). Its atomic number is 26 and atomic mass is 55.85. It has a melting point of 1538 deg C and boiling point of 2862 deg C. The density of iron is 7.87 grams/cu cm. It is a metal in the first transition series. Like the elements of other group 8 elements (ruthenium and osmium), iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, ?2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Iron as a common metal is mostly confused with other metals such as different types of steels. Iron is by mass the most common element on the earth, forming much of earth’s outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element and the second most common metal in the earth crust. Steels contain over 95 % Fe. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the metals which form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. Iron objects have been found in Egypt dating from around 3500 BCE (Before Common Era). They contain around 7.5 % nickel, which indicates that they were of meteoric origin. The ancient Hittites of Asia Minor (today’s Turkey) were the first to smelt iron from its ores around 1500 BCE. The ‘Iron Age’ had begun at that time. The first person to explain the various types of iron was René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur who wrote a book on the subject in 1722. This explained how steel, wrought iron, and cast iron, were to be distinguished by the amount of charcoal (carbon) they contained. The...

Pure Iron

Pure Iron Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin word Ferrum). Its atomic number is 26 and atomic mass is 55.85. It has a melting point of 1538 deg C and boiling point of 2862 deg C. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on the earth, forming much of earth’s outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element and the second most common metal in the earth crust. Steels contain over 95 % Fe. Pure iron is a common metal but it is mostly confused with other metals such as steel and wrought iron. All these metals vary in composition. The carbon content of pure iron makes it unique and different from the other metals and ferrous alloys. The carbon content in pure iron is always less than 0.008 %. Wrought iron has a higher carbon content of up to 0.5 %. This shows how less the impurities are in the pure iron. Pure iron is silvery white colored metal and is extremely lustrous. Its most important property is that it is very soft. It is easy to work and shape and it is just soft enough to cut through (with quite a bit of difficulty) using a knife. Pure iron can be hammered into sheets and drawn into wires. It conducts heat and electricity and is very easy to magnetize. Its other properties include easy corrosion in the presence of moist air and high temperatures. Pure iron has got valencies +2 and +3. Compounds of iron with valency +2 are known as ferrous compounds while the compounds of iron with valency +3 are known as ferric compounds. Metallurgy of pure iron The metallurgical nature of solid pure iron can be studied from...