Processes for Forging of Metals Dec16

Processes for Forging of Metals...

Processes for Forging of Metals Metal forging is a deformation process where metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure into high strength parts known as metal forgings. The forging process is entirely different from the casting (or foundry) process, as metal used to make forged parts is neither melted nor poured as in the casting process. Forging is defined as a metal working process in which the specific shape of metal work piece is obtained in solid state by compressive forces applied through the use of dies and tools. During the forging process controlled deformation of metal takes place. Forging process is accomplished by hammering or pressing the metal.  In modern times, industrial forging is done either with presses or with hammers powered by compressed air, electricity, hydraulics or steam. All the metals and alloys are forgeable, but the forgeability rating of different metals and alloys can vary from high to low or poor. The factors involved are the composition, crystal structure and mechanical properties all considered within a temperature range. The wider the temperature range, the higher the forgeability rating. Most forging is done on heated work pieces. Cold forging can also take place at the room temperatures. Forging process is one of the oldest known metalworking processes with its origin about some thousands of years back. The process goes back to 8000 BCE and evolved from the manual art of simple blacksmithing. Traditionally, forging was performed by a smith using hammer and anvil. Using hammer and anvil is a crude form of forging. The smithy or forge has evolved over centuries. Then as now, a series of compressive hammer blows performs the shaping or forging of the part. Modern forging uses machine driven impact hammers or presses which deform the...