Management of Security in a Steel Plant...

Management of Security in a Steel Plant The operation of a steel plant requires careful attention to safety, security and safeguards. Security is aimed at preventing intentional acts that might harm the steel plant or result in the theft of materials. Security personnel play a very important role in the steel plant and they are an integral part of the management team. The levels of control required to be provided for security of the steel plant are to be suitable and to meet the threat environment, give proper protection to information, people and physical assets, and to provide assurance to management, employees and various agencies working in the steel plant about safe and secure environment. Fundamental to security is the concept of risk. The risk is ‘a threat or hazard assessed for likelihood and impact’. A threat is ‘an event with negative consequences, brought about through malicious human intent’. A hazard is ‘an event with negative consequences, brought about through natural, environmental or non-malicious human intent’. Steel plant security system is to be based on the physical security mitigation measures to protect people and physical assets on their identified risks. The measures are to reduce the security risks to acceptable levels in the plant by providing minimum controls determined by the impact level of the security risks. Controls needed for the secure operation of the steel plant are to take into account threats which are there both from outside as well as from inside. There are four types of security (Fig 1) that are provided in the steel plant. These are namely (i) preventive security, (ii) protective security, (iii) detective security and (iv) punitive security. The security measures in the steel plant are distinguished from the ‘safety’ functions which aim at protection from damages...

Corrosion of Steel and Corrosion Protection...

Corrosion of Steel and Corrosion Protection Corrosion is a multifaceted phenomenon that adversely affects and causes deterioration of properties in metals through oxidation. According to DIN EN ISO 8044 corrosion is defined as ‘Physical interaction between a metal and its environment which results in changes of the metal’s properties and which may lead to significant functional impairment of the metal, the environment or the technical system of which they form a part.’ Steel, the most commonly used material, corrodes in many media including most outdoor environments.  When unalloyed or alloyed steel without corrosion protection is exposed to the atmosphere, the surface takes a reddish brown colour after a short time. This reddish brown colour indicates rust is forming and the steel is corroding. While corroding the steel is getting oxidized to produce rust, which occupies approximately 6 times the volume of the original material consumed in the process. The corrosion process begins when a corrosive medium acts on the steel. The corrosion can be either chemical corrosion or electrochemical corrosion. Corrosion of steel is an electrochemical reaction that requires the presence of water (H2O), oxygen (O2) and ions such as chloride ions (Cl¯), all of which exist in the atmosphere. Atmospheric chloride ions are in greatest abundance anywhere near the coastline. This electrochemical reaction starts when atmospheric oxygen oxidizes iron in the presence of water. In addition, the atmosphere also carries emissions from human activity, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (NO2) and many other chemicals, which can also be significant in the corrosion process. The schematics of general corrosion process are illustrated below in Fig 1 Fig 1 Schematics of general corrosion process Types of Corrosion Besides general corrosion, there are various types of localized corrosion...