Employee Morale

Employee Morale Employee morale plays a vital role in the performance of the organization. Morale can be considered as the total satisfaction that the employees of the organization derive from their job, the prevailing atmosphere and the factors that appeal to them. It is a conglomeration of attitudes and feelings that constitute a reserve of physical and mental strength including factors like self-confidence, optimism and a positive mental attitude. Morale is an invisible element which determines the success or failure of the organization. Morale is a way of describing how employees feel about their jobs, management and the organization. These feelings are tied to the behaviours and attitudes which the employees show in their workplace. When employees have good morale, they feel committed to the management and the organization, loyal to their jobs and motivated to be productive. They work harder, produce more, meet deadlines and give it their all. Low morale of the employees takes a toll on employees’ performance and productivity. Employee morale is related to how the employees feel about the organization. It is an important factor in creating a healthy work environment.  Organization which has higher employee morale displays improved productivity, improved performance and creativity, reduced number of days taken for leave, higher attention to details, a safer workplace, and an increased quality of work. In addition to that, the organization has employees who arrive to work on time, communicate better, waste lesser time in gossip, have higher rate of retention, and are more creative. Moreover, employees who work with high morale develop higher rates of job satisfaction, creativeness and innovation, respect for their own job, commitment to the organization, eagerness to satisfy group objectives instead of individual objectives, and desire to improve the organizational performance. On the other hand,...

Management of Man and Machine...

Management of Man and Machine Human intervention of the production processes has undergone a big change after automatic and computerized controls have been introduced for the production processes. A large number of activities previously done by human beings have been taken over by the automation. But this has not eliminated the need for operator for the running of the equipment/process though his role has changed a lot with the automation of the process. Today mass production would not exist without the usage of automated and flexible manufacturing processes. These automated processes need machines and equipments which require human intervention for controlling them. Close and harmonious interaction by operators with their machines is a necessity for the productive output. An integrated and coordinated communication between machines and the men operating them is needed for the productive output. The complexity of industrial processes has greatly increased during the last few decades. This tendency has originated due to a number of reasons, such as (i) the enlargement of the scale of the modern plants, (ii) the required specifications dealing with the product quality, (iii) the need for the energy conservation, (iv) the requirements for the environmental pollution control, (v) the necessity of safety in the plant, and (vi) the progress in process control and informatics creating totally new possibilities. This essential change in the process operation has led to the definition of new human operator tasks. In the last thirty years, human manual control has become much less important and human supervisory control has been developed as the main concept for man and machine interactions. The tasks of the human supervisor are now predominantly cognitive ones, and contain at least the following six subtasks namely (i) the monitoring of all data presented to the human supervisor, (ii)...

Trade Unions and their Role in a Steel Plant...

Trade Unions and their Role in a Steel Plant Trade unions are independent, membership-based establishments of the employees that represent and negotiate on their behalf. They function in the organization with their presence registered with the management. They give advice when their members have problems at work, represent members in discussions with the management, and help improve wages and working conditions through negotiations.  Trade unions also make sure that the statutory requirements are met. Other functions carried out by trade unions are to arrange education and learning opportunities for the employees, promote equal opportunities at work, fight against discrimination and help to ensure a healthy and safe working environment. Many unions also provide services for their members, such as welfare benefits, personal legal help and financial services. Trade unions function on the principle that if all the employees speak with the same voice, their concerns are more likely to be addressed. This involves union members in the same workplace getting together to talk about common problems, democratically taking collective decisions on workplace issues, and putting these views to the management. It can be very difficult for employees to speak individually to the management about workplace problems and to resolve their difficulty individually even assuming that they have the confidence to raise the issue. Individual members usually elect someone to speak on their behalf (a shop representative) and to discuss their concerns with management, whereas the trade unions normally have regular formal discussions. These negotiations are referred to as ‘collective bargaining’. Trade unions are financed through the individual contributions of their members. They continually seek to recruit members (encouraging new members to join by ‘organizing’) and to build an active membership, as this give unions stronger bargaining power in negotiations with the management. Trade unions...

Productivity and Product Quality in Continuous Casting Machine Jun25

Productivity and Product Quality in Continuous Casting Machine...

Productivity and Product Quality in Continuous Casting Machine Continuous casting is the process by which liquid steel is solidified into a semifinished steel product (billet, bloom, or slab etc.) for subsequent rolling in the hot rolling mills. Continuous casting of liquid steel was introduced for commercial application in 1950s. In the relatively short time span since the introduction of continuous casting for the commercial application, the process has evolved with a wide variety of new process developments directed towards achieving improved productivity and superior product quality. These developments include new design concepts of continuous casting machines, metallurgical practices, and the application of process control and automation by computer systems. The main driving force behind these developments has been the recognition that substantial improvement in the yield and energy savings are possible which have a dramatic effect on operating cost. Through these developments, it has been possible to achieve major quality improvements of the continuous cast product.  Present day continuous casting machines produce cast steel products having quality which is fully equivalent to and exceeds that of products produced from ingot steel. Modern continuous casting machines efficiently produce essentially all grades of steels, including the highest qualities for critical applications. Productivity improvement The two methods to improve the productivity of the continuous casting process include improving the continuous casting machine throughput (tons/hour) and net-working ratio. The through put of the continuous casting machine is improved by increasing the casting speed as well as by increasing the cross sectional area, while the net- working ratio is improved by decreasing the casting machine down time. The casting speed of the continuous casting machine is limited by several different phenomena as given below. A high casting speed results in a significant increase in the flow velocity of the...

Use of Hot Metal in Electrical Arc Furnace Jun04

Use of Hot Metal in Electrical Arc Furnace...

Use of Hot Metal in Electrical Arc Furnace Steel making by the electric arc furnace (EAF) has very good flexibility with respect to the selection of charge materials. The traditional charge material for the EAF process has been 100 percent cold scrap but as the issues regarding scrap such as its availability and quality, market price fluctuations and restrictions imposed by scrap in making some steel grades due to residual elements and nitrogen level etc. have increased, EAF operators intensified the search for alternative iron materials. Direct reduced iron (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), pig iron (PI) and hot metal (HM) are the alternative iron materials which have been used in varying percentage successfully by EAF operators. The use of hot metal is more popular in those areas where there is shortage of scrap and/or electric power. The source of hot metal is blast furnace hence hot metal can be used in those EAFs which are in close proximity of the blast furnace, otherwise the EAF operator has to use pig iron. Pig iron will need extra energy for its melting. Presently EAF can be designed for using up to 80 percent of hot metal in the charge. Influence of HM on key parameters of EAF process In recent times the main emphasis in EAF steel making has been related to achieving maximum energy efficiency. Further the feed charge materials are influencing the design of the EAFs and their operation practices. The influence of HM as a charge material on various key parameters of an EAF process of steel making is detailed below. Residual elements – Residual elements also known as tramp elements cannot be removed from the steel during processing. Therefore, the amount of these elements in the product is a direct function...