Product Quality and Manufacturing Technology Management...

Product Quality and Manufacturing Technology Management Manufacturing technology is defined as the act or process (or connected series of acts or processes) of actually and physically making a specified product from its material constituents. It is central to a production system which produces the specified product as required by the customer. Manufacturing process takes place when some input occurs in a production system and it appears as an output and provides result in the form of a product. On the other hand, manufacturing technology is that knowledge which is used in the production system during the process of manufacturing. Manufacturing technology is an interacting combination at any level of complexity, of people, materials, tools, machines, automation, software facilities, and procedures designed to work together for the common purpose of producing product of that quality which is needed by the customer. It provides the tools which enable production of the specified products.  These tools of the manufacturing technology magnify the efforts of individual workers and turn raw materials at the affordable cost into the quality products required by the customers The objectives of the manufacturing technology (Fig 1) are namely (i) low cost operation, (ii) high performance, (iii) consistent product quality, (iv) high productivity level, (v) high yield, and (vi) product customization. Fig 1 Objectives of manufacturing technologies There is a close link between the quality of the product and the manufacturing technology. An appropriate manufacturing technology is normally needed to produce product of quality since the technology is the principal quality determinant. In fact, manufacturing technology is to have capabilities to produce products of predictable quality at the productivity levels which keeps the product production cost under control. The technology needs not be unique, but it is to be mature and is to have innovative...

Pig iron

Pig iron  Pig iron is an intrmediate product of a steel plant produced during smelting of iron ore in a blast furnace. Iron ore is reduced by coke using limestone and dolomite as flux for removal of impurities. The resulting liquid iron (hot metal), when cast in the pig casting machine, produces pig iron. Fig 1 shows pig iron.                        Fig 1 Pig iron The term ‘pig iron’ has arisen from the old method of casting liquid iron from a blast furnace into moulds arranged in sand beds. The traditional shape of the molds used for these ingots was a branching structure formed in sand. It had many individual ingots at right angles to a central channel or runner. Such a configuration is similar in appearance to a litter of piglets suckling on a sow. Name of these ingots was given from the word “piglets”. When the metal had cooled and hardened, the smaller ingots (the pigs) were simply broken from the much thinner runner (the sow). Since pig iron was intended for remelting, the uneven size of the ingots and inclusion of small amounts of sand were insignificant when compared with its ease of casting and of handling. Presently most of the liquid iron is produced and consumed within integrated steel plants for steel making. In this context the term ‘pig iron’ is something of a misnomer within integrated steel plants since blast furnace iron (hot metal) is transferred directly to the steel melting shop in liquid form. The liquid iron from a blast furnace which is not sent for steel making is cast into pigs in pig casting machine for use in steel making later as cold charge or is sold to foundries or to mini steel plants having induction furnaces as merchant...