Management of the Process Productivity...

Management of the Process Productivity A process can be defined as a set of horizontal sequence of interrelated or interacting activities, which transforms inputs (needs) into outputs (results) for meeting the needs of customers or stakeholders. Inputs and intended outputs of a process can be tangible (such as equipment, materials or components) or intangible (such as energy or information). Outputs can also be unintended, such as waste or pollution.  The process needs a resource that provides the needed energy to the process for the transformation from the input to output to occur. Each process has customers and other interested parties (who may be either internal or external to the organization), with needs and expectations about the process, who define the required outputs of the process. A process is an interacting combination at any level of complexity, of people, materials, tools, machines, automation, software facilities, and procedures designed to work together for the common purpose of producing product of that quality which is needed by the customer. The process is central to the production system in the organization (Fig 1). The process instills quality in the product. Fig 1 Process of a production system The objectives of a process are normally (i) low cost operation, (ii) high performance, (iii) consistent product quality, (iv) high productivity level, (v) high yield, and (vi) product customization. An organization to function has several processes. The organization can reach its goals and objectives in an efficient and effective manner only if all the processes operate at a high level of productivity. Productivity is the quality or state of being productive. It is the measure of how specified resources are managed to accomplish timely objectives stated in terms of quality and quantity. It indicates how well the resources such as materials,...

Important Issues related to Re-rolling mills in SME Sector...

Important Issues related to Re-rolling mills in SME Sector The steel sector in India consists of four branches namely (i) multi-million tons integrated steel plants, (ii) mini integrated steel plants, (iii) individual units of steel melting producing pencil ingots, and (iv) re-rolling mills which are rolling steel from billets, pencil ingots and scrap steel. Most of the units under last two categories are in small and medium enterprise (SME) sector. All the four branches which constitute the steel sector play a very important role in the steel economy of the country. Re-rolling mills has a considerable contribution to the steel production of the country.  There are around 1800 re-rolling mills in SME sector in India. The rolling capacities of these mills are mostly in the range of 8,000 tons per year to 80,000 tons per year. On a very conservative estimate, these mills contribute more than 20 % of the total production of finished steel in the country. Hence, these mills play a very important role in supporting the steel economy of the country. The conditions of the most of the re-rolling mills can be termed as not healthy. They operate with very old technologies and operate at low level of productivities and high level of energy consumptions. There are many problems and challenges associated with these mills. Several agencies have carried out detailed studies of the steel and re-rolling units of SME sector. Some of these studies have identified certain barriers associated with these mills (Fig 1) which include (i) high energy consumption due to the use of obsolete technologies, (ii) lack of awareness and knowledge on several fronts, (iii) lack of proper operational procedures, (iv) a negative mind-set among owners of the mills, and (v) lack of finance to effect necessary changes...

Role of Inspection and Testing in maintaining Product Quality...

Role of Inspection and Testing in maintaining Product Quality It is important for an organization that the quality of the products is maintained when they are delivered to the customers since the product quality is the top most drivers for the success of the organization. However, in the organization, employees do make mistakes and machines and equipment do have breakdowns. These results into the production process getting destabilize which in turn cause production of the products which do not meet with the requirements specified in the standards and specifications. Hence, there is necessity of inspection and testing so as to ensure that the products delivered to the customer are complying with the specification as required by the customer. Inspection and testing measure and determine the quality level of the products. These are the activities or techniques used to verify the product quality as well to ensure that the results of the manufacturing process are the same as was expected. Inspection and testing activities are done to uncover the defects in the products and reporting to the production management who make the decision to allow or deny product release. Inspection and testing during the process of the manufacture of a product are the most common methods of attaining standardization, uniformity, and quality of workmanship. These are the process of controlling the product quality by comparing it with the established standards and specifications. It is one of the operational parts of the quality control. During the inspection and testing, If the product does not fall within the zone of acceptability then it gets rejected and corrective measures are required to be taken by the production management so as to ensure that the product manufactured further conform to specified standards and specifications. Inspection and testing are indispensable...

Components of Product Quality Management...

Components of Product Quality Management Product quality is the group of features and characteristics which determines the capacity of the product to meet the specification requirements of a standard or of a customer. It is often defined as ‘the ability to fulfill the customer’s needs and expectations’. It is also sometimes defined as ‘meeting specifications at the lowest possible cost’ as well as ‘delivering the value that a customer derives from a product’. It is important for the organization that the quality products are delivered to the customers since they are the top most drivers for the organizational success. After all, growing sales make the foundation of the organizational performance not only to remain consistent but also make it strong and sturdier. However, in the organization, employees do make mistakes and machines and equipment do have breakdowns. The goal of the product quality management is to minimize this so that the customer remains happy with the product performance and reorders the products. For this the organization is to put a relentless focus on product quality. Improving product quality save the organization the cost since it needs not to do things to cover up old mistakes. Improving quality also raises the employees’ engagement since they like to be on a high performance team. Product quality management includes the following four major components. They are (i) quality planning, (ii) quality control, (iii) quality assurance, and (iv) quality improvement. Quality planning Quality planning is the process for ‘identifying which quality standards are relevant to the product and determining the procedures and techniques to satisfy them’. Quality planning means how to fulfill the process and deliverable products quality requirements. It helps the organization to schedule all of the tasks needed to make sure that the products meets the...

Product Quality and its Management...

Product Quality and its Management Product quality is the group of features and characteristics which determines the capacity of the product to meet the specification requirements of a standard or of a customer. It is often defined as ‘the ability to fulfill the customer’s needs and expectations’. It is also sometimes defined as ‘meeting specifications at the lowest possible cost’ as well as ‘delivering the value that a customer derives from a product’. Product quality needs to be defined firstly in terms of parameters or characteristics, which vary from product to product. The quality of the product can be controlled during its manufacturing and it makes the product free from deficiency and defects. A specification is the minimum requirement according to which the producer makes and delivers the product to the customer. In setting specification limits, the following is required to be considered. The user’s and/or customer’s needs Requirements provided for in national and/or international standards Requirements of specifications of national and/or international standards with restrictions to meet specific needs of the customer The competitor’s product specifications, in order to gain marketing advantages Brand related requirements of the product. Requirements relating to product safety and health hazards provided for in the statutory and regulatory requirements As described above, the product quality is the ability to satisfy the stated needs. From this definition, product quality can be described by nine dimensions or characteristics. These nine dimensions are as follows. Performance – It is the product’s primary operating characteristics. Product is to give expected performance during its use. Product features – The product is to meet the requirements of its features. For example a rebar is to have two longitudinal ribs and several cross ribs at specific intervals. Reliability – It is the probability of the...