Standardization and the Process of Standardization...

Standardization and the Process of Standardization There is practically no economic activity nowadays which is not outlined, whether partly or totally, by the process of standardization. The worldwide acceptance of standardization is closely related to the economic globalization and the transformation of regulatory processes at the national, regional, and international levels. Standardization helps in reducing, simplifying, and organizing matters which are apt to become diversified, complicated, and chaotic if left uncontrolled. It is the process of formulating, issuing, and implementing standards. Standardization creates value at many levels. The output of the process of standardization is the creation of standards. The development of standardization as an engineering activity was pioneered in 1793 by Eli Whitney. Standardization of screw threads by Sir Joseph Whitworth dates back to 1841. Other instances of early standardization can be found during the emergence of the railway industry. Mass production became possible only through standardization. By the turn of the 19th century, standardization was already recognized in industrialized countries as a powerful tool to increase productivity through interchangeability and reduction of variety. The early part of the 20th century saw the establishment of several standardization organizations, which turned standardization into an organized and ongoing effort for industrial applications. By 1928, national standards organizations had been established in 16 industrialized countries. After the First World War, standardization, through reduction in variety, was established as a useful management tool for reducing costs. Some three decades later, seller market conditions, which prevailed for some time after the Second World War, put consumer interest under threat. To safeguard this interest and to meet the rising demand for standards for finished products, standardization activities increased in various countries, with the additional support and involvement of government and industry Definitions of standardization The standardization process is often...

Management of Man and Machine...

Management of Man and Machine Human intervention of the production processes has undergone a big change after automatic and computerized controls have been introduced for the production processes. A large number of activities previously done by human beings have been taken over by the automation. But this has not eliminated the need for operator for the running of the equipment/process though his role has changed a lot with the automation of the process. Today mass production would not exist without the usage of automated and flexible manufacturing processes. These automated processes need machines and equipments which require human intervention for controlling them. Close and harmonious interaction by operators with their machines is a necessity for the productive output. An integrated and coordinated communication between machines and the men operating them is needed for the productive output. The complexity of industrial processes has greatly increased during the last few decades. This tendency has originated due to a number of reasons, such as (i) the enlargement of the scale of the modern plants, (ii) the required specifications dealing with the product quality, (iii) the need for the energy conservation, (iv) the requirements for the environmental pollution control, (v) the necessity of safety in the plant, and (vi) the progress in process control and informatics creating totally new possibilities. This essential change in the process operation has led to the definition of new human operator tasks. In the last thirty years, human manual control has become much less important and human supervisory control has been developed as the main concept for man and machine interactions. The tasks of the human supervisor are now predominantly cognitive ones, and contain at least the following six subtasks namely (i) the monitoring of all data presented to the human supervisor, (ii)...

Process Management

Process Management  Process management is a concept which is based on the observation that each product that an organization provides to the market is the outcome of a number of activities performed. Processes are the key instrument for the  organization of these activities and for improving the understanding of their interrelationships. The organization can reach its goals and objectives in an efficient and effective manner only if people and other organizational resources play together well. Processes are an important concept for facilitating this effective collaboration. Process can be defined as a set of horizontal sequence of interrelated or interacting activities, which transforms inputs (needs) into outputs (results) for meeting the needs of customers or stakeholders. Inputs and intended outputs of a process can be tangible (such as equipment, materials or components) or intangible (such as energy or information). Outputs can also be unintended, such as waste or pollution.  Each process has customers and other interested parties (who may be either internal or external to the organization), with needs and expectations about the process, who define the required outputs of the process. Process activities require allocation of resources such as people and materials. Processes are strategic, operational and supportive. Process components are sub process, activity and task. Processes  have owner and team members. Processes are considered to be a generic factor in the organization. They are the way things get done. they are also viewed as strategic assets, which require the organization to take a process orientation. A major advantage of the process approach, when compared to other approaches, is in the management and control of the interactions between these processes and the interfaces between the functional hierarchies of the organization. Common examples of processes include new product development, order fulfillment, and customer service; less...

AMR Schemes

AMR Schemes  Acronym AMR stands for additions, modifications and replacements. In a steel plant which is operating for a number of years, implementation of AMR schemes is a necessity if the efficiency and productivity of the plant is to be maintained over a large numbers of years. Expenditures on AMR schemes are capital in nature and usually these expenditures are not very large and they are small in nature. However these expenditures change the capital structure of the organization. This is in contrast to the maintenance activity in the steel plant where equipment parts or equipments are replaced and the expenditures incurred during maintenance are part of the operating expenses of the plant. Necessity of AMR schemes in an operating steel plant occurs due to the following reasons. The design deficiencies become visible once the steel plant has been operated for a number of years. These deficiencies come in the way of plant being operated at the desired efficiency and productivity levels. For removal of these design deficiencies, some additional equipment may be needed or some modifications in the process may be necessary. May be some equipment need replacement with different but similar equipment. AMR schemes help management in removing design deficiencies and bring back the steel plant to the designed efficiency and productivity levels. All the steel plant equipments donot have the same expected life. Some equipment has a long life while life of some other equipment can be enhanced by replacing some worn out components during maintenance. But in some the life is not long, nor can it be increased by maintenance. Such equipment become  a weak link in obtaining the desired efficiency levels and the productivity levels of the process since the break downs in these equipment increase drastically once their...

Standardization Process in Steel Industry...

Standardization Process in Steel Industry In a large industry there are a large number of matters as well as items which are apt to become diversified, complicated, and chaotic if not timely controlled. Industrial standardization aims to develop, establish and implement industry level standards, protocols, and conventions as well as national and international level standards for simplification and unification of the working. Standardization can be defined as reducing, simplifying, and organizing matters which are apt to become diversified, complicated, and chaotic if left uncontrolled. It is the process of formulating, issuing, and implementing standards. Standards can be defined as rules specified for standardization.  Standards are documents that provide rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, for common and repeated use. Standards aim at achieving the optimum degree of order in a given context. The entire industry as well as all the activities of the industry benefit from standardization due to the improved working environment, increased safety, enhanced quality as well as lower transaction costs and prices. There are mandatory standards and voluntary standards, but generally formation and the implementation of the voluntary standards contribute maximum to the process of standardization in the industry. Standards are usually classified in three types namely (i) reference standards, (ii) minimum quality standards, and (iii) compatibility standards. Standardization process is a powerful tool in the hands of management of the organization to simplify the operation and to reduce the inventories of raw materials, in-process materials, finished products, spares, consumables and other store items. It helps to create a strong, open, and well organized technological infrastructure that serve as a foundation for innovation led growth. For organizations of all sizes, effective standardization promotes innovation; enhance productivity and helps in improving the efficiency of man and equipment. It defines...