Metal Forming Processes...

Metal Forming Processes Metal forming processes consists of deformation processes in which a metal work piece (billet, bloom, or blank) is shaped by tools or dies. The design and control of such processes depend on the characteristics of the material of the work piece, the requirements of the finished product, the conditions at the interface of the tool and the work piece, the mechanics of plastic deformation (metal flow), and the equipment used. These factors influence the selection of geometry and material of the tool as well as processing conditions (examples are temperatures of die and work piece and lubrication). Since many of the metalworking operations are rather complex, models of various types, such as analytical, physical, or numerical models, are often used to design these processes. A brief historical view, a classification of metalworking processes and equipment, and a summary of some of the more recent developments in the field are described below. Historical view Metalworking technology is one of three major technologies used for the fabrication of the metal products. The other two are casting process and powder metallurgy (P/M) technology. It is possibly the oldest and most established of the three technologies. The earliest records of metalworking show that the simple hammering of gold (Au) and copper (Cu) was practiced in various regions of the Middle East around 8000 BCE. The forming of these metals was crude since the skill of refining by smelting was not known and since the ability to work the material was limited by impurities that remained after the metal had been separated from its ore. With the start of Cu smelting around 4000 BCE, a useful method became available for purifying metals through chemical reactions in the liquid state. Later, in the Cu age, it was...