Classification of Steel Products produced in Steel Plants...

Classification of Steel Products produced in Steel Plants Steel products in general are classified as (i) castings, (ii) forged products, (iii) stamped products, (iv) bright products, (v) cold formed products, (vi) welded sections, (vii) wire and wire products, (viii) pipes, tubes, hollow sections and hollow bars, and (ix) powder metallurgy products. Steel products produced in steel plants are classified as per (i) stage of manufacture of the product, (ii) shape and dimensions of the product, and (iii) the product appearance. As per the stage of manufacture, the range of steel products produced in the steel plants are usually grouped into three main categories (Fig 1) namely (i) crude steel products, (ii) semi-finished steel products, and (iii) finished rolled steel products. Finished rolled steel products can be (i) hot rolled products, (ii) cold rolled products, and (iii) coated products.  Fig 1 Categories of steel products Crude steel products Crude steel products are either in the liquid state or in solid state. Liquid steel is normally used for the production steel castings. Crude steel in solid form was earlier considered as steel ingots which are produced by pouring liquid steel into iron moulds of a shape appropriate to the subsequent processing into semi-finished or finished steel products normally by hot rolling or forging. The shape of steel ingots usually resembles a truncated pyramid or truncated cone with the side surfaces may be corrugated and the corners more or less rounded. Steel ingots may be dressed and/or hot scarfed or cropped depending on the subsequent conversion requirements. Steel ingots can be distinguished based on their cross sections as (i) having a cross-section which can be square, rectangular (of width less than twice the thickness), polygonal, round, oval or shaped according to the profile to be rolled, (ii)...