Pipe Fittings

Pipe Fittings In a steel plant there are large numbers of pipe networks. These pipe networks use a large number of pipe fittings. These pipe fittings are of various types, shapes and sizes. Pipe fittings allow pipes to be joined or installed in the appropriate place and terminated or closed wherever necessary. They can be expensive, require time, and different materials and tools to install. They are an essential part of piping systems. There are thousands of specialized fittings manufactured. Each type of pipe or tube requires its own type of fitting, but usually all pipe fittings share some common features. The basic purpose of using pipe fittings in pipe systems is to connect the bores of two or more pipes or tubes. Pipe fittings are used in piping systems normally (i) to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, (ii) to adapt to different sizes or shapes, (iii) to branch or re-direct the piping system, (iv) if necessary to provide a jointing method if two dissimilar piping materials are used in the one system, and (v) for other purposes, such as regulating, measuring or changing the direction of the fluid flow or to connect up threaded pipe and equipment. They are also used to close or seal a pipe. Fittings for pipe and tubing are most often made from the same base material as the pipe or tubing being connected, e.g., stainless steel, steel, copper or plastic. However, any material that is allowed by code may be used, but must be compatible with the other materials in the system, the fluids being transported, and the temperatures and pressures inside and outside of the system. Fittings (especially uncommon types) require money, time, materials, and tools to install, so they are not a trivial part of the...

Basics of Valves

Basics of Valves A valve is a mechanical device specially designed to control the fluid flow and pressure within a system or process. Valves are designed for either liquid or gaseous application. A valve carries out any of the following functions. Stopping and starting of flow of the fluid. Throttling the amount of fluid flow Controlling the fluid flow direction Regulating the downstream system or process pressure Relieving the over pressure in the system Regulating the temperature of process fluid Controlling the mixing of fluids Since there is diversity of the types of systems, fluids, and environments in which valves are to operate, valves have many designs and types which satisfy one or more of the identified functions. By nature of their design, function, and application, valves comes in a wide variety of styles, sizes, and pressure classes. A multitude of valve types and designs safely accommodate a wide variety of valve applications.  These days range of valves extends from simple water cocks to control valves equipped with microprocessors, which provide single loop control of the process. The most common types of valves in use today are gate, globe, plug, ball, needle, butterfly, check, pressure relief, diaphragm, pinch, and safety valves etc. Valves are manufactured from a number of materials which include carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, iron, brass, bronze, aluminum, plastics and a number of special alloys. Valves can have threaded end connection, flanged end connection, welded connection, or other type of connection like union end connections in case of some plastic valves. Regardless of type, all valves have the basic components which include valve body, bonnet, trim (internal elements), actuators, and packing. These are described below. A valve along with its basic components is shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 A...