Non Coking Coal for Iron Production...

Non Coking Coal for Iron Production A non-coking coal is that coal which when heated in the absence of air leaves a coherent residue. This residue does not possess the physical and chemical properties of the coke and is not suitable for the manufacture of coke. Non coking coal like any other coal is an organic rock (as opposed to most other rocks in the earth’s crust, such as clays and sandstone, which are inorganic). It contains mostly carbon (C), but it also has hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N2), as well as some inorganic constituents which are known as ash (minerals) and water (H2O). Coal was formed from prehistoric plants, in marshy environments, some tens or hundreds of millions of years ago. The presence of water restricted the supply of oxygen and allowed thermal and bacterial decomposition of plant material to take place, instead of the completion of the carbon cycle. Under these conditions of anaerobic decay, in the so-called biochemical stage of coal formation, a carbon-rich material called ‘peat’ was formed. In the subsequent geochemical stage, the different time-temperature histories led to the formations of coal of widely differing properties. These formations of coal are lignite (65 % to 72 % carbon), sub-bituminous coal (72 % to 76 % carbon), bituminous coal (76 % to 90 % carbon), and anthracite (90 % to 95 %) carbon. The degree of change undergone by a coal as it matures from peat to anthracite is known as coalification. Coalification has an important bearing on the physical and chemical properties of coal and is referred to as the ‘rank’ of the coal. Ranking is determined by the degree of transformation of the original plant material to carbon. The ranks of coals, from those with...

Pulverized coal injection in a blast furnace May10

Pulverized coal injection in a blast furnace...

Pulverized coal injection in a blast furnace Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is a process that involves injecting large volumes of fine coal particles into the raceway of a blast furnace (BF). This provides not only a supplemental carbon source but also speeds up the production of liquid iron besides reducing the need for metallurgical coke for reactions in the blast furnace. The desire to move away from the production of the metallurgical coke with its inherent environmental problems has motivated the use of pulverized coal injection in blast furnace. History Pulverized coal injection was developed in 19th century, but was not implemented for industrial use. In early sixties of the last century PCI was successfully implemented in AK Steel of USA and Shougang in China. Though trials in several countries at that time had proved that the technology for pneumatic transport and injection of coal were available, but the economics and relative ease of the process was such that oil and natural gas injection became more popular. During energy crises of seventies people started showing interest in the process of PCI. This process developed very fast during 1980s and in the second half of the 1980s there were successful practices of coal injections at rates ranging from 180 Kg/tHM to 200 Kg/tHM. In nineties PCI technologies became mature. But the real shift to PCI has taken place only when the cost of metallurgical coke started rising due to the increased global demand. Concept and the process of coal injection The PCI technology is based on the simple concept of carrying the finely ground (pulverized) dried coal by a conveying gas (normally nitrogen) to the blast furnace where it is distributed to different tuyeres and injected through a lance in the blow pipe. In the...