Universal Beams and its Rolling Jul13

Universal Beams and its Rolling...

Universal Beams and its Rolling Universal beams are also known as parallel flange beams or wide flange beams. The cross section of a universal beam is either I or H shape. H shape beams are also referred as universal columns. The horizontal portion of the cross section of a universal beam is known as flanges, while the vertical element is termed as web. H beam has wider flanges than I beam. Universal beams are usually rolled from structural steels and are used in construction and civil engineering. The universal beam has the most efficient cross sectional profile since most of its material is located away from the neutral axis providing a high second moment of area, which in turn increases the stiffness, hence resistance to bending and deflection. H beams have equal or near-equal width and depth and are more suited to being oriented vertically to carry axial load such as columns in multi-storey construction, while I beams are significantly deeper than they are wide are more suited to carrying bending load such as beam elements in floors. When a beam bends the top of the beam is in compression and the bottom is in tension.  These forces are greatest at the very top and very bottom. Since a universal beam has higher amount of material at the top and bottom sides and smaller material in the web, it provides a structural section which is stiff with use of least material. Though I-beams are excellent for unidirectional bending in a plane parallel to the web, they do not perform as well in bidirectional bending. These beams also show little resistance to twisting and undergo sectional warping under torsional loading. For torsion dominated problems, box sections and other types of stiff sections are used in preference...