Stages during the Development of Management Concepts...

Stages during the Development of Management Concepts Management is considered to be the process of getting planned things implemented through and with people within the available resources of the organization. Management consists of accomplishment of predetermined objectives through planning and directing of efforts and the organizing and employing of the human and material resources. Management is an approach which enables the realization of the desired results (generally expressed in terms of performance) by taking actions to achieve those results and by dealing with the dangers brought in by external and internal factors (environment) within the organization. Development of the management concepts has taken place in several stages. During these stages, different approaches for the management concepts have been developed. These stages provide the information about the approach which was predominant during the period of the stage. These management approaches have been developed and tested over time. Elements from these approaches which have been proven successful can be taken and integrated to arrive at a unified system of management practice to suit a particular situation in an organization. During the study of the stages of the management concepts, it can be seen that there is non-linearity and every stage involves active interplay of components which cannot be separated into distinct elements. Further, since there is continuous evolvement of management processes, their identification with a certain stage is a bit vague, though there are some practices which are dominating during each stage. Though, it is difficult to predict the timings for these practices, there are periods in the stage when the specific practice has been developed and applied with sufficient regularity. These regular practices of the various stages are given below. Stage of scientific management The basis of the scientific management is considered to be the...

Process Control System Dec28

Process Control System...

Process Control System A process is broadly defined as an operation that uses resources to transform inputs into outputs. It is the resource that provides the needed energy to the process for the transformation to occur. In the context of an industry the term ‘process’ as used in the term ‘process control’ refers to the methods of changing and refining of raw materials that remain in a solid, liquid, gaseous, fluid or slurry state  to create end products of specified properties. The raw materials during the process are transferred, measured, mixed, heated or cooled, filtered, stored or handled in a way so that the desired output is obtained. During the process the raw materials undergo physical and chemical changes for their conversion into the end products. Normally an industry operates a number of processes where each process exhibits a particular dynamic (time varying) behaviour that governs the transformation. The dynamic behaviour is determined by the physical and chemical properties of the inputs, the resource and the process itself. Process control refers to the methods that are employed for controlling the variables of the process or processes used in the manufacturing of a product. It is the act of controlling a final control element to change manipulated variable to maintain the process variable at a desired set point. These variables can be in process inputs, in process parameters and in process output. Control of the process is done to reduce its variability for getting aimed product quality, improving the production rates, increasing the efficiency of the process, facilitating protection of the environment and ensuring safety of the men and equipment employed for the process. A corollary to the process control is that a controllable process must behave in a predictable manner. For a given change...