Business Process Re-engineering...

Business Process Re-engineering  Business process re-engineering (BPR) is a strategy of the management of an organization which focuses on the analysis and design of various business processes and flow of work within the organization. It seeks to help the organization radically to restructure its operations by focusing on the ground up design of the business processes. BPR helps the organization to rethink in fundamental way how it should do the work in order to drastically reduce operational costs, improve service to its customers, and become a world class organization.  It is also sometimes known as business process redesign, business transformation, or business process change management. BPR as an approach to radical organizational change is a relatively recent concept emerging from the two papers written by Davenport and Short (1990), and Hammer (1990). These papers gave rise to two popular books in 1993 written by (i) by Davenport , and (ii) by Hammer and Champy. The authors of these books promoted the idea that sometimes radical redesign and reorganization of the organization becomes necessary for lowering the costs and increasing the quality of service. The concept of BPR has become popular in a short period of time, promising amazing results very quickly in relation to corporate and technological change, transformation and competitive pressures. BPR strategy presumes that the business processes are set of logically related tasks performed to achieve defined business outcomes. Re-engineering of these processes emphasize a holistic focus on business objectives, and processes related to them are recreated totally rather than carrying out the optimization of the sub processes. The most notable definitions of BPR are given below. Hammer and Champy has defined BPR as ‘… the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary modern measures of performance, such as...

Policy and Strategy

Policy and Strategy  The success of an organization is strongly linked to how the management perceives the goals to be achieved and the ways devised to achieve those goals. These are two different but interrelated concepts of policy and strategy. Organizational success or failure is largely dependent on how the various functional areas in the organization are combined to produce and deliver value to different stakeholders. This integration of functions is taking place in a continuously changing and complex environment. The formulation and implementation of policies and strategies is an important issue as the organization strives to remain successful and grow in an increasingly complex, competitive and globalised world. It is therefore interdisciplinary by nature and requires an understanding of all functional areas. Organizational policy refers to the roles and responsibilities of top level management, the significant issues affecting organization wide performance and the decisions affecting organization in the long run. Organizational strategy is the strategy developed and implemented to the goals set by the organizational policy. More specifically, organizational strategy can be defined as the way a company creates value through the configuration and coordination of its various multi activities. Organizational policies and strategy provide guidelines for action. Unfavorable and ambiguous policies or strategy may affect the functioning of the employees adversely and they may experience stress. Organization wide policies are designed to achieve major organizational objectives. If an organization think about achieving something as involving ways, means and ends – policy is often engaged with the ‘ways’; strategy is concerned with the ‘means’; and finally planning is focused on the delivery of the ‘ends’. Fig 1 shows relationship of policy and strategy as compared with vision and mission. Fig 1 Relationship of policy and strategy with vision and mission  Policy Policy is a...

Vision, Mission, and Values of an Organization...

Vision, Mission, and Values of an Organization Vision and mission both relate to an organization’s purpose and are typically communicated in some written form. Vision and mission are statements from the organization that answer questions about who we are, what do we value, and where we’re going. Vision and mission create a target for strategy development. Vision and mission provide a high level guide, and the strategy provides a specific guide, to the goals and objectives showing success or failure of the strategy and satisfaction of the larger set of objectives stated in the mission. Vision and mission statements play three critical roles. They are (i) to communicate the purpose of the organization to stakeholders, (ii) to inform strategy development, and (iii) to develop the measurable goals and objectives by which to gauge the success of the organization’s strategy. These interdependent, cascading roles, and the relationships among them, are summarized in the Fig 1. Fig 1 Key roles of vision and mission There are three reasons why an organization must develops vision and mission statements as shown above. First it helps the organization focus on what is really important. Although the organization knows what it is trying to do to improve the performance, yet it is easy to lose sight of this when dealing with the day to day hassles that plague all organizations. The vision and mission statements of the organizations help employees remember what is important as they go about doing their daily work. Second, organizational vision and mission statements let people and other organizations have a snapshot view of what the organization is and what it wants to do. When the organizational vision and mission statements are easily visible, people can learn about the organization without having to work hard for...