Standards and their importance for the Organizations...

Standards and their importance for the Organizations The modern and globalized world cannot exist without standards which are sup­porting cooperation, trade, health, safety, and economic growth etc. In fact, standards exist in almost all aspects of modern life. They range from standards in information and communication technology which ensure the interoperability of diverse components to standards for the quality of products or services, and underlie areas ranging from the harmonization of international accounting systems to the governance of the social and environmental performance of the organizations. Stand­ards have a huge influence on everyday life. They play a key role in an environment where an organization is to be at its best for achieving success. They are open access documents with no charge or license fee for their use, apart from the cost of its purchase. The development of standardization as an engineering activity was pioneered by Eli Whitney, who in 1793 invented the cotton gin, a machine for separating cotton fibres from their seeds. Whitney later introduced the production of interchangeable components for the manufacture of guns. Standardization of screw threads by Sir Joseph Whitworth dates back to 1841. Other instances of early standardization can be found in the dawning age of the railway industry, as the establishment of a standard width between the two rails on the railway track, the manufacture of railway couplings, air brakes and the signaling system called for increasing levels of standardized work. But major impetus to the development of standards came around the turn of the 20th century, when a large number of national standardization organizations were founded, including organizations that are nowadays known as the British Standards Institution (BSI) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Their purpose was to create sets of rules for the design...

Probes, Instruments and measurements for Monitoring of Blast Furnace Jun28

Probes, Instruments and measurements for Monitoring of Blast Furnace...

Probes, Instruments and measurements for Monitoring of Blast Furnace A blast furnace (BF) works with the principle of countercurrent gas to solid heat exchange from tuyere raceway to the stock line and of a countercurrent oxygen (O2) exchange from fusion zone to the stock line. Solid burden materials consisting of ferrous materials (iron ore, sinter, and pellets), coke, and fluxing materials are charged into the top of the furnace, while air normally enriched with O2, and sometimes with auxiliary fuels is fed through the tuyeres near the bottom of the furnace. The usual retention time of the ferrous burden materials in the furnace may be as long as 8 hours, while that of the gas is a few seconds. However, the residence time of the coke in the hearth is much longer usually ranging from 1 week to 4 weeks. The liquid hot metal (HM) and liquid slag are tapped at regular intervals through a number of tapholes situated at the bottom of the furnace. The slag is separated from the hot metal which is handled through HM ladles. A blast furnace need to be operated with high productivity and low fuel rate in a flexible, stable and high efficiency manner and must have a long campaign life. The blast furnace is often referred to as black box because of the terms such as the furnace condition and furnace heat level which is currently in dominant use as well as since the blast furnace process has many unknown areas. The reason seems to be due to the difficulty in measurement, because, in a blast furnace, three phases of gas, solid, and liquid coexist, the reaction proceeds non-uniformly in radial direction, the process is accompanied by a time dependent variation, and the parameters to be...

Controlling – A Management Function...

Controlling – A Management Function Management function of controlling is the process whereby organization sets itself performance objectives and strives to achieve them as best it can over time. It is a method for managing the performance of the organization. It is the process oriented to verify the advancement status of the planned objectives as well as the efficacy and efficiency of the organization through the analysis of the resources, costs and proceeds. Controlling is one of the important functions of management. It pinpoints the deviations on the basis of which management can take corrective actions. Without the function of controlling, work done in the organization is not systematic and as per plans, since the inefficiencies remain undetected. For achieving the objectives and targets, it is necessary that the actual performance is assessed from time to time to ensure that what is being achieved is in conformity with the objectives and targets. This is done through the controlling function of the management. Thus, controlling as a function of management refers to the evaluation of actual performance of work against planned or standard performance and taking the corrective action, if necessary. Controlling function of the management is not to be seen as an activity of the exclusive competence of the administration area, but rather as a process which involves, at the appropriate levels of responsibilities of all the functions of the organization.  As with all processes, the controlling function is constituted by different elements which are connected to each other. These elements are (i) the structure (personnel charged of the duty of control), (ii) the tools (general accounting, data analysis, statistical analysis, budgeting, reporting), and (iii) the procedures (coordination, optimization). Different management experts have defined the function of controlling in the following way. “Control of...