Granulation of Liquid Iron Oct15

Granulation of Liquid Iron...

Granulation of Liquid Iron Granulation of liquid iron is a method of handling of excess production of hot metal in a blast furnace (BF)  which cannot be consumed by steel making in the steel melting shop of an integrated iron and steel plant. It is a cost effective method of producing a solid product which is known as granulated iron (GI). GI has good chemical and physical properties like pig iron and can be used as a prime raw material for the purpose of steel making. GI has a chemical composition identical to the liquid iron which is being granulated. There is no oxidation or slag entrapment in the GI and there is high metallic content. Fig 1 shows some pieces of GI. Fig 1 Granulated iron  A GI plant takes care of any mismatch between the production at the iron making facilities and the requirement of liquid iron at the steel making facilities. It is logistically positioned in between the two facilities. Excess liquid iron from the BF is diverted to the GI plant for the production of GI. This eliminates reduction of hot blast volume at the BF while producing GI which can be used as internal feedstock as coolant in the BOF, or for external sales to be used by the cupolas, induction furnaces (IF) and electric arc furnaces (EAF). GI plants can be constructed and operated with capacities matching with the BF outputs. They are alternative to the pig casting machines (PCM) but with considerable higher capacities. The capacities of even twin strand PCMs are limited due to the solidification time of the liquid iron in the pig moulds. The PCMs also requires frequent mechanical maintenance as a consequence of the complex design. The GI has identical properties to that...

CONARC Process for Steelmaking Apr17

CONARC Process for Steelmaking...

CONARC Process for Steelmaking CONARC process for steelmaking was developed by Mannesmann Demag Huettentechnik (now it is SMS Siemag). The objective for the development of this process was to utilize the benefits of both the conventional top blown converter steelmaking and electric arc furnace (EAF). The name of the process CONARC sums up the fusion of the two processes (CONverter ARCing). The technology of this process is based on the increased use of hot metal in the electric arc furnace and is aimed at optimizing energy recovery and maximizing productivity in such an operation. The process was developed for using any kind and mix of raw materials like hot metal, direct reduced iron (DRI) and scrap to ensure highest quality requirements for the production of all grades and qualities of steels covering a wide range from carbon steels to stainless steels. Depending upon the requirements of the finished products, CONARC process is followed by a ladle furnace or a vacuum degassing unit. Major equipment for the CONARC process The basic equipment of CONARC process consists of two identical refractory lined furnace shells, one slewable electrode structure with one set of electrodes serving both the furnace shells, one electric supply (transformer etc.) for both the shells, and one slewable water cooled top oxygen lance system serving both the shells. Alternatively two stationary top lances, one for each furnace shell for the blowing of oxygen can also be used. Option is available for introducing bottom stirring devices integrated to the bottom of each of the furnace shell. Options are also available to introduce burners and injectors systems in the shell for the injection of fuel, carbon and oxygen as per the process requirements. The other important systems include raw material and flux feeding systems and gas...

Finex Process for Liquid Iron Production Feb20

Finex Process for Liquid Iron Production...

             Finex Process for Liquid Iron Production  For the production of liquid iron Finex process was developed jointly by Siemens VAI and the South Korean company POSCO. This process has been based on the direct use of iron ore fines and non coking coal.  Siemens VAI and POSCO are jointly developing this process since 1992. Initial Work The basic laboratory scale research had been done with a 15 tons/day bench scale unit from 1992 to 1996. The results of this unit were used for the test operations of a 150 tons/day pilot plant in 1999. The Finex demonstration plant of 0.6 million tons per annum was built in Pohang works of POSCO and started production in June 2003. This plant has three fluidized bed reactors. Since February 2004, the demonstrated plant steadily produced at a rate of more than 0.7 million tons per annum of hot metal. Commercial Operation Construction of the first commercial plant of capacity 1.5 Mpta started in August 2004 and was commissioned in May 2007. Within the first year of its commissioning the plant reached its stable operation and the stabilized parameters given in Table 1have been achieved. The process is based on direct reduction of iron ore in fluidized beds and then melting of this reduced iron. The commercial plant has used 4 nos. fluidized bed reactors for pre heating and pre-reduction of iron ore and a melter gasifier which is similar to melter gasifier used in the Corex process. Table 1:- Parameter Achieved in Commercial Plant Sl.No. Parameter Unit Value 1 Production rate Mtpa 1.5 2 Availability % 96.8 3 Coal rate Kg/tHM 710 4 PCI rate Kg/tHM 160 5 C in Hot Metal % 4.5 6 S in Hot Metal % 0.03 7 Si in Hot Metal...