Liquefied Petroleum Gas- its Characteristics and Safety Requirements...

Liquefied Petroleum Gas- its Characteristics and Safety Requirements  Liquefied petroleum gas is  a gas used in steel plants as a fuel gas for heating in various furnaces and in flame cutting machines of continuous casting machines. It is popularly known by its  abbreviation or short form which is LPG. LPG is also used for oxy-LPG gas cutting and welding. Sometimes it is used for carburization of steel, flame heating, flame gouging, flame hardening, flame cleaning, and flame straightening. Liquid petroleum gases were discovered in 1912 when Dr. Walter Snelling, an American scientist, realized that these gases could be changed into liquids and stored under moderate pressure. From 1912 and 1920, LP gas uses were developed. The first LPG cook stove was made in 1912, and the first LPG  fueled car was developed in 1913. The LPG industry began sometime shortly before World War 1. At that time, a problem in the natural gas distribution process cropped up. Gradually facilities were built to cool and compress natural gas, and to separate the gases that could be turned into liquids (including propane and butane). LPG was sold commercially by 1920. Like all fossil fuels, LPG is a non renewable source of energy. It is extracted from crude oil and natural gas. It is a safe, clean burning, reliable, high calorific value fuel. The main composition of LPG are hydrocarbons containing three or four carbon atoms. The normal components of LPG thus, are propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) (Fig 1). Small concentrations of other hydrocarbons may also be present. Depending on the source of the LPG and how it has been produced, components other than  hydrocarbons may also be present. CAS number of LPG gas is 68476-85-7  while its UN number is 1075. CAS number for propane is...

Fuel gases used in steel industry...

Fuel gases used in steel industry Fuel gas is a fuel which under ordinary conditions is in the form of gas. Fuel gases are used in steel plants for different applications which include (i) a source of heat (ii) as a reductant and (iii) cutting and welding application. Fuel gases usually used in steel industry are natural gas (NG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), acetylene, by product gases (blast furnace gas, coke oven gas and converter gas). Natural gas Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel which is extracted from deposits in the earth. It is a mixture of hydro carbons consisting primarily of methane (generally greater than 80 %) but includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes such as ethane, propane and butane etc. It may even contain some small percentage of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. It is an odorless, colourless, tasteless and non toxic gas. Natural gas is lighter than air and it burns with a clean blue flame when mixed with the requisite amount of air and ignited. It is considered one of the cleanest burning fuels. On burning it produces primarily heat, carbon dioxide and water. Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters (corresponding to 0 deg C and I Kg/Sq cm pressure) or standard cubic feet (corresponding to 16 deg C and 14.73 psia pressures). The higher heat value of one cubic meter of natural gas varies from around 9500 Kcal to 10,000 Kcal. Its density is around 0.85 Kg/Cum. The main usage of natural gas in the steel industry is in iron making. For production of direct reduced iron it is reformed to produce reducing gases which are then used for the reduction of iron ore. The main reforming reactions are as follows. 2CH4...