Automation in Steel Industry Dec29

Automation in Steel Industry...

Automation in Steel Industry Steel is an alloy of iron usually containing less than 1 % carbon. Because of its versatile properties and its recycling possibilities, steel is the basic material for sustained development in modern industrial society. It provides a broad  range of uses in almost all important sectors of industry such as apparatus and machinery manufacture, bridge and building construction, power and environmental engineering, and automotive and transportation industries. Steel is and will remain the most important engineering and construction material in the modern era. The steel industry is a very dynamic industrial sector. Further steps are ongoing towards increasing resource and energy efficiency, reducing emissions and providing safe and healthy work environments. For achieving this, the steel industry is to excel in today’s environment which is a highly dynamic and interactive business environment. Market conditions, new product requirements, raw material costs, and process management etc. all affects the performance of the steel industry. The steel industry is an important driving force of the economy and hence it should be run efficiently. Further it needs heavy investments and hence it is essential that it operates economically to keep it healthy. Its products are indispensable for other industries such as automotive and construction. Quality, reliability and economic efficiency in the production of steel products can only be ensured by means of automated manufacturing facilities. The processes of steel industry are highly energy intensive and comprised of many complex unit operations. Iron ore and coal need preprocessing before feeding into a reactor, and liquid metals from different reactors need to be carefully handled. Further liquid steel is to be converted into solid form and then rolled into finished products. Each of these operations has a stake in the quality of steel produced, and also needs...

Role of Inspection and Testing in maintaining Product Quality...

Role of Inspection and Testing in maintaining Product Quality It is important for an organization that the quality of the products is maintained when they are delivered to the customers since the product quality is the top most drivers for the success of the organization. However, in the organization, employees do make mistakes and machines and equipment do have breakdowns. These results into the production process getting destabilize which in turn cause production of the products which do not meet with the requirements specified in the standards and specifications. Hence, there is necessity of inspection and testing so as to ensure that the products delivered to the customer are complying with the specification as required by the customer. Inspection and testing measure and determine the quality level of the products. These are the activities or techniques used to verify the product quality as well to ensure that the results of the manufacturing process are the same as was expected. Inspection and testing activities are done to uncover the defects in the products and reporting to the production management who make the decision to allow or deny product release. Inspection and testing during the process of the manufacture of a product are the most common methods of attaining standardization, uniformity, and quality of workmanship. These are the process of controlling the product quality by comparing it with the established standards and specifications. It is one of the operational parts of the quality control. During the inspection and testing, If the product does not fall within the zone of acceptability then it gets rejected and corrective measures are required to be taken by the production management so as to ensure that the product manufactured further conform to specified standards and specifications. Inspection and testing are indispensable...

Probes, Instruments and measurements for Monitoring of Blast Furnace Jun28

Probes, Instruments and measurements for Monitoring of Blast Furnace...

Probes, Instruments and measurements for Monitoring of Blast Furnace A blast furnace (BF) works with the principle of countercurrent gas to solid heat exchange from tuyere raceway to the stock line and of a countercurrent oxygen (O2) exchange from fusion zone to the stock line. Solid burden materials consisting of ferrous materials (iron ore, sinter, and pellets), coke, and fluxing materials are charged into the top of the furnace, while air normally enriched with O2, and sometimes with auxiliary fuels is fed through the tuyeres near the bottom of the furnace. The usual retention time of the ferrous burden materials in the furnace may be as long as 8 hours, while that of the gas is a few seconds. However, the residence time of the coke in the hearth is much longer usually ranging from 1 week to 4 weeks. The liquid hot metal (HM) and liquid slag are tapped at regular intervals through a number of tapholes situated at the bottom of the furnace. The slag is separated from the hot metal which is handled through HM ladles. A blast furnace need to be operated with high productivity and low fuel rate in a flexible, stable and high efficiency manner and must have a long campaign life. The blast furnace is often referred to as black box because of the terms such as the furnace condition and furnace heat level which is currently in dominant use as well as since the blast furnace process has many unknown areas. The reason seems to be due to the difficulty in measurement, because, in a blast furnace, three phases of gas, solid, and liquid coexist, the reaction proceeds non-uniformly in radial direction, the process is accompanied by a time dependent variation, and the parameters to be...

Quality Control Jan11

Quality Control

Quality Control There are two terms which are frequently used for ensuring the quality of a product or service. These terms are ‘quality control’ and ‘quality assurance’. These two terms are often used interchangeably. However these two terms differ in meaning. Quality control is an evaluation to determine needed corrective action. It is an act of guiding a process where variables are kept under constant observation and control within a range of limits. It is based on measurement and control of the parameters which can affect the quality of product or services. On the other hand quality assurance is an activity which gives confidence and make doubly sure that the things will not go wrong. Quality assurance takes place through a planned and systematic activity normally through procedures designed for meeting the quality requirements for a product or service. The ISO definition states that quality control is the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for quality. This definition could imply that any activity whether serving the improvement, control, management or assurance of quality could be a quality control activity. Quality control is a process for maintaining standards. Standards are maintained through a process of selection, measurement and correction of work, so that only those products or services emerge from the process which meets the standards. In simple terms, quality control prevents undesirable changes being present in the quality of the product or service being supplied. Quality control can be applied to particular products, to processes which produce the products, or to the output of the whole organization by measuring the overall quality performance of the organization. Quality control is often considered to be an activity which takes place after the event is over. This means that the quality is determined after...