Product Quality and Manufacturing Technology Management...

Product Quality and Manufacturing Technology Management Manufacturing technology is defined as the act or process (or connected series of acts or processes) of actually and physically making a specified product from its material constituents. It is central to a production system which produces the specified product as required by the customer. Manufacturing process takes place when some input occurs in a production system and it appears as an output and provides result in the form of a product. On the other hand, manufacturing technology is that knowledge which is used in the production system during the process of manufacturing. Manufacturing technology is an interacting combination at any level of complexity, of people, materials, tools, machines, automation, software facilities, and procedures designed to work together for the common purpose of producing product of that quality which is needed by the customer. It provides the tools which enable production of the specified products.  These tools of the manufacturing technology magnify the efforts of individual workers and turn raw materials at the affordable cost into the quality products required by the customers The objectives of the manufacturing technology (Fig 1) are namely (i) low cost operation, (ii) high performance, (iii) consistent product quality, (iv) high productivity level, (v) high yield, and (vi) product customization. Fig 1 Objectives of manufacturing technologies There is a close link between the quality of the product and the manufacturing technology. An appropriate manufacturing technology is normally needed to produce product of quality since the technology is the principal quality determinant. In fact, manufacturing technology is to have capabilities to produce products of predictable quality at the productivity levels which keeps the product production cost under control. The technology needs not be unique, but it is to be mature and is to have innovative...

Role of Inspection and Testing in maintaining Product Quality...

Role of Inspection and Testing in maintaining Product Quality It is important for an organization that the quality of the products is maintained when they are delivered to the customers since the product quality is the top most drivers for the success of the organization. However, in the organization, employees do make mistakes and machines and equipment do have breakdowns. These results into the production process getting destabilize which in turn cause production of the products which do not meet with the requirements specified in the standards and specifications. Hence, there is necessity of inspection and testing so as to ensure that the products delivered to the customer are complying with the specification as required by the customer. Inspection and testing measure and determine the quality level of the products. These are the activities or techniques used to verify the product quality as well to ensure that the results of the manufacturing process are the same as was expected. Inspection and testing activities are done to uncover the defects in the products and reporting to the production management who make the decision to allow or deny product release. Inspection and testing during the process of the manufacture of a product are the most common methods of attaining standardization, uniformity, and quality of workmanship. These are the process of controlling the product quality by comparing it with the established standards and specifications. It is one of the operational parts of the quality control. During the inspection and testing, If the product does not fall within the zone of acceptability then it gets rejected and corrective measures are required to be taken by the production management so as to ensure that the product manufactured further conform to specified standards and specifications. Inspection and testing are indispensable...

Product Quality and its Management...

Product Quality and its Management Product quality is the group of features and characteristics which determines the capacity of the product to meet the specification requirements of a standard or of a customer. It is often defined as ‘the ability to fulfill the customer’s needs and expectations’. It is also sometimes defined as ‘meeting specifications at the lowest possible cost’ as well as ‘delivering the value that a customer derives from a product’. Product quality needs to be defined firstly in terms of parameters or characteristics, which vary from product to product. The quality of the product can be controlled during its manufacturing and it makes the product free from deficiency and defects. A specification is the minimum requirement according to which the producer makes and delivers the product to the customer. In setting specification limits, the following is required to be considered. The user’s and/or customer’s needs Requirements provided for in national and/or international standards Requirements of specifications of national and/or international standards with restrictions to meet specific needs of the customer The competitor’s product specifications, in order to gain marketing advantages Brand related requirements of the product. Requirements relating to product safety and health hazards provided for in the statutory and regulatory requirements As described above, the product quality is the ability to satisfy the stated needs. From this definition, product quality can be described by nine dimensions or characteristics. These nine dimensions are as follows. Performance – It is the product’s primary operating characteristics. Product is to give expected performance during its use. Product features – The product is to meet the requirements of its features. For example a rebar is to have two longitudinal ribs and several cross ribs at specific intervals. Reliability – It is the probability of the...

Safety Inspections and Safety Audits...

Safety Inspections and Safety Audits A sound organization must check its safety practices very carefully. The debits of possible loss or injury situations should balance against the credits of adequate safeguards. Safety audits and safety inspections are the tools which an organization use for its preparedness towards safety (Fig 1). Safety audit involves systematically going through the workplace to evaluate safety programs and practices within the organization while safety inspection involves systematically going through the workplace to look for safety hazards or lapses in safety practices. Both are important components of a workplace safety plan. They are frequently used interchangeably though they are not the same. Fig 1 Safety tools A safety audit is a structured evaluation of the application and efficiency of the safety policy, safety programs,  and safety systems of the organization. It is also a control of the compliance with the regulatory regulations and a clear standard, which may be a national standard or organizational internal standard. An audit is a widely used instrument and an important tool to improve safety. It is the process of verification that the safety programs are working. Broadly defined, an audit is a systematic review of operations and practices to ensure that relevant requirements are met.  Safety audit apply many methodologies to mitigate safety risks within the organization. Safety audits evaluate all aspects of the safety programs with special emphasis on the quality as well as the quantity of safety activities at every level. Safety audits are a managerial or a corporate activity. Safety inspection, on the other hand, is defined as that monitoring function which is conducted in an organization to identify, locate and report existing and potential hazards that could cause accidents in the work place. Safety inspections frequently reveal potential causes of...

Failure Analysis Dec16

Failure Analysis

Failure Analysis Failures of equipment components and assemblies, or structures in industry can cause loss of life, unscheduled shutdowns, increased maintenance and repair costs, and damaging litigation disputes. To prevent future recurrence of the problem caused by the failures ,it is essential to carry out an investigation in each failure. The conducting of an  investigation for a failure is known as failure analysis.  Failure analysis is a process of collecting and analyzing data and it is carried out to determine the causes or factors that have led to the undesired loss of functionality or failures of equipment components and assemblies, or structures. It is a multilevel process that includes physical investigation. The normal scope of a failure analysis is to find the failure mechanism and the most probable cause of the failure. The term failure mechanism is normally described as the metallurgical, chemical, mechanical, or tribological process leading to a particular failure mode. Failures of the equipment components and assemblies, or structures occur as a result of some sort of a mistake causing a weak link in the chain of the continuous process of engineering, design, manufacturing, and operation. The cause of a failure can be any one or more of the following. Fault in design Defects in material Deficiencies during processing and manufacturing Defects in assembly or installation Off-design or unintended service conditions Deficiencies in maintenance (neglect and procedures etc.) Improper operation Major steps while conducting a failure analysis are given in Fig 1. Fig 1 Majors steps in failure analysis The main principle of a failure analysis is to preserve evidence and the necessary information from the subject part or assembly in the as-received condition and the same is captured before anything is done to alter its condition. Further during failure analysis...