Cryogenic process of Air Separation Jul20

Cryogenic process of Air Separation...

Cryogenic process of Air Separation   Dry air contains by volume 78.08 % of nitrogen, 20.95 % of oxygen, and 0.93 % of argon along with traces of a number of other gases. Ambient air may contain varying amount of water vapor (depending upon humidity) and other gases produced by natural processes and human activities. Air separation plants are used for the production of nitrogen or/and oxygen as gases and sometimes as liquid products. Some plants also produce argon.  All air separation plants employ either non cryogenic based technologies or cryogenic based technologies. Non cryogenic air separation plants produce gaseous nitrogen or oxygen products using near ambient temperature separation processes. These plant produce oxygen which is typically 90 % to 95.5 pure or nitrogen which is typically 95 5 to 99.5 % oxygen free. Cryogenic air separation plants are most commonly used to produce high purity products at medium to high production rates. They can produce products as gases or liquids. This technology is based on difference in boiling points of gases. All air separation processes start with compression of air. The cost of electric energy is the largest single operating cost incurred in air separation plants. It is usually in the range of one third or two thirds of the operating costs associated with producing gas and liquid products. Cryogenic plants Cryogenic plants are based on cryogenic air separation processes.  The basic process was commercialized early in the 20th century. Since then, a large number of process configuration variations have emerged, driven by the desire to produce particular gas products and product mixes as efficiently as possible at various required levels of purity and pressure. These air separation process cycles have evolved in parallel with advances in compression machinery, heat exchangers, distillation technology and gas expander technology....