Worker, Work, and Working...

Worker, Work, and Working Work is related to the worker’s consciousness since ages. Systematic, purposeful, and organized approach to work is specific and unique human activity. In fact, work is a matter of a deep concern for both the management and the workers. It is important since it is central to the organizational performance. All the economic and social theories made earlier have focus on the work, since it is the means of production needed by the society. Though the work has been central to the human activity all along, organized study of work has not begun till the later period of the 19th century. Frederick W. Taylor was the first person in the recorded history who considered that the work deserves systematic observation and study. Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ which is the science of work, laid only the first foundations. In the scientific management of work, the worker is given less attention, and the knowledge worker receives even lesser attention. There has been plenty of loud thinking, but serious, systematic study has been confined only to a few aspects of working. There has been ‘industrial physiology, dealing with the relationship of such things as lighting, tool and machine speeds, design of the work place, and so on, to the human being who is the worker. To this effect, the fundamental work was done in the early years of 20th century, such as the fatigue and vision studies. Then, there has been ‘ industrial psychology’ which focuses on the aptitudes, that is, the relationship between the demands of specific manual work and the physical skill, mechanical coordination, and reactions of individual workers. Finally, there has been development with respect to human relations, which is, the study of the relationship between people working together, though in...

Project Planning in a Steel Project...

Project Planning in a Steel Project A steel project is a series of activities which takes place over a pre-arranged period of time to achieve a specified aim of commissioning of the project. The activities of steel project are usually one time activities which are not to be repeated in near future. Steel project activities differ from plant operation which consists mostly of routine activities. For achieving the specified aim, it is essential that project activities are properly and systematically planned. Project planning is done to increase the likelihood that the project will be implemented efficiently, effectively and successfully. Also, it is very much necessary that required time, resources, and efforts are provided as well used for the preparation of the project plan since a defective plan can lead the project to a situation which becomes out of control of the project team. A project plan is a formal, approved document of the project which guides the project execution and is required for the management and control of the project. It forms the basis for all the actions which are required to be taken by the project team for the implementation of the project. The planning document is not of permanent nature since it is necessary to continuously update it as the work of the project progresses. Project planning is important since (i) it guides the project team in its activities, (ii) it helps the project team to remain on track while progressing on work, (iii) It helps in focused monitoring of the work progress, (iv) it helps in the effective use of the resources, and (v) it creates confidence in everyone connected with the project that the project team by following the plans is on right course towards achievement of the results. The...

Project Monitoring

Project Monitoring Project monitoring is an integral part of the project management. It provides understanding of the progress of the project so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the performance deviates significantly from the planned path. It consists of regular systematic collection and analysis of information to track the progress of the project implementation against pre-set targets and objectives. It is an important management tool which, if used properly, provides continuous feedback on the project implementation progress as well assists in the identification of potential successes and constraints to facilitate timely decisions. Effective monitoring of the project is a critical element of good project management. It supports informed and timely decision making by the management and provides accountability for achieving results. It is a key part of project cycle management. It is to be built into the project at the planning stage. It is not an ‘add on’ tool which can be used during mid-way of the project implementation. On the other hand, it is to be woven throughout the project. Project monitoring clarifies project objectives, links activities and their resources to objectives, translates objectives into performance indicators and sets targets, routinely collects data on these indicators, compares actual results with targets, and reports progress to the management and alerts the management about the problems which frequently gets cropped up during the implementation of the project. It provides information to the management whether the project is proceeding as per schedule relative to the targets or there is time over run in the project implementation. It also focuses, in particular, on the efficiency and the use of resources during the project implementation. It provides support to the management in its efforts to complete the project in time and within the budget. Project monitoring...