Task and Work Oriented Organizational Structure...

Task and Work Oriented Organizational Structure The organizational structure for the organizing of the activities and reporting relationships can be organized in five distinct methods (Fig 1). These are (i) structure based on functions, (ii) team organization, (iii) decentralized structure, (iv) simulated decentralization, and (v) systems structure. The first two of them are traditional structures while the remaining three are new ways of organizing the organizational activities. Fig 1 Methods for organizing and reporting relationships for an organization structure Each of the above five structures have been developed to meet specific needs. Hence, one may get an impression that each of them suits certain convenience and does not represent any reasoning. But in reality, each of these structures expresses different type of reasoning. Each takes one general aspect of managerial organization and builds a structure around it. Organization structure is needed to satisfy the minimum requirements with respect to (i) clarity, (ii) economy, (iii) direction of vision, (iv) understanding by the employees of their own task and the common task, (v) decision making, (vi) stability and adaptability, and (vii) maintenance and self-renewal. These are described below and given in Fig 2. Clarity – Clarity means that all the managerial components, and all the employees within the organization, particularly all the executives, need to know where they belong, where they stand, where they have to go for whatever is needed, whether it is information, cooperation, or decision. Clarity is not to be confused with simplicity. Actually, structures which appear simple may lack clarity. And apparently complex structures can have complete clarity. A structure in which the employees do not know without an elaborate organizational manual where they belong, where they have to go, and where they stand creates friction, wastes time, causes disputes and frustration,...

Functions of Management...

Functions of Management Management is the process of directing resources in an efficient and effective manner towards the accomplishment of the organizational objectives. It is described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning and regulation of operation of the organization for the fulfilment of the given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status. Various management experts have defined management. Some of the definitions of these experts are given below. “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things. Management is the personnel administration.” – Lawrence A. Apply “The art of getting things done through people”- Marry Parker Follet “Management is the art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organised groups.” – Horold Kanontz “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” – Henry Fayol “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organising, activating and controlling to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” – G.R. Terry “Management is simply the process of decision making and control over the action of human beings for the express purpose of attaining pre-determined goals.” – Stanley Vance Activity of the management is carried out for fulfilling its responsibilities for achievement of the organizational objectives by pursuing different functions of the management.  Different management experts have broken down, listed and explained these functions. The number of broken down functions by different management experts varies. Some have listed four, some have listed five and some even more than five.  However the...