Crude Steel

Crude SteelĀ  Crude steel is the term used for the first solid steel product which is produced during the solidification of liquid steel in a steel melting shop. Crude steel is part of saleable steel when it is supplied to customers for its use or for further processing. Crude steel is normally processed into finished steel either by rolling or by forging processes. World steel association also includes liquid steel which goes into production of steel castings under crude steel for statistical purpose. Various common types of crude steel products (Fig 1) include (i) ingot, (ii) slab, (iii) bloom, (iv) billet, (v) round, and (vi) dog bone section. Crude steel products are also semi-finished products since they need further processing for the production of finished steel. Fig 1 Common types of crude steel products Ingot Ingot is the product obtained by pouring liquid steel into cast iron mould of a shape appropriate for the subsequent processing generally by hot rolling or forging into semi-finished or finished products. The shape generally resembles a truncated pyramid or truncated cone. The side surfaces can be corrugated and the corners are more or less rounded. Depending on its subsequent conversion requirements, ingot can be dressed and/or hot scarfed or cropped. The usual cross section of ingot is square, rectangular, round, oval, or polygon. Ingots with square cross section are used for rolling into billets, rails and other structural sections, whereas, ingots with rectangular cross section, are generally used for rolling into flat products. These ingots usually have a width which is two times or higher than the thickness. Round ingots are used for the production of seamless pipes. Polygonal ingots are used to produce tyres, and wheels etc. Low capacity steel melting shops with induction furnaces produce very...