Flanges and Their Types...

Flanges and Their Types In a steel plant there are large numbers of pipe networks. These pipe networks use a large number of flanges. These flanges are made of carbon steel and alloy steel and are of various types, shapes and sizes. A pipe flange is a disc, collar or ring that attaches to pipe with the purpose of providing increased support for strength, blocking off a pipeline or implementing the attachment of more items. Flanges are piping components used for connecting pipes with other piping components like valves, specialties, instrument items like orifice, flow meters etc. They are also used to connect pipes with pumps and other equipment to form a pipework system. They facilitate the dismantling and periodic maintenance of piping components, pumps and equipment etc. They provide easy access for cleaning, inspection or modification. Flanges form semi-permanent connections to join parts which are light enough to be moved with available equipment or which cannot be welded due to heat sensitivity or replacement needs. They are usually welded or screwed into such systems and then joined with bolts. A flanged joint is composed of three separate and independent although interrelated components namely (i) the flanges, (ii) the gaskets, and (iii) the fasteners. Gasket is normally inserted between the two mating flanges to provide a tighter seal. There are numerous types of flanges available. The type and material of a flange to be used is dependent on the service duty of the line. Flanges are either custom built with dimensions provided by the customer or they are manufactured according to a specification as per various national and international standards.  Flanges of different standards are normally not interchangeable and hence are not usually joined. If necessary to do so, they are to be checked to ensure the...

Universal Beams and its Rolling Jul13

Universal Beams and its Rolling...

Universal Beams and its Rolling Universal beams are also known as parallel flange beams or wide flange beams. The cross section of a universal beam is either I or H shape. H shape beams are also referred as universal columns. The horizontal portion of the cross section of a universal beam is known as flanges, while the vertical element is termed as web. H beam has wider flanges than I beam. Universal beams are usually rolled from structural steels and are used in construction and civil engineering. The universal beam has the most efficient cross sectional profile since most of its material is located away from the neutral axis providing a high second moment of area, which in turn increases the stiffness, hence resistance to bending and deflection. H beams have equal or near-equal width and depth and are more suited to being oriented vertically to carry axial load such as columns in multi-storey construction, while I beams are significantly deeper than they are wide are more suited to carrying bending load such as beam elements in floors. When a beam bends the top of the beam is in compression and the bottom is in tension.  These forces are greatest at the very top and very bottom. Since a universal beam has higher amount of material at the top and bottom sides and smaller material in the web, it provides a structural section which is stiff with use of least material. Though I-beams are excellent for unidirectional bending in a plane parallel to the web, they do not perform as well in bidirectional bending. These beams also show little resistance to twisting and undergo sectional warping under torsional loading. For torsion dominated problems, box sections and other types of stiff sections are used in preference...

Beam Blank Casting Technology May14

Beam Blank Casting Technology...

Beam Blank Casting Technology The development of the direct casting of beam blanks is one of the most outstanding success stories in the evolution of the continuous casting of steel. The continuous casting of near net shape cross sections, called ‘beam blanks’ or ‘dogbones’, has been an efficient commercial process to manufacture long steel products such as I and H beams since the first beam blank caster was commissioned at Algoma Steel (now Essar Steel Algoma Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Canada) in 1968. Its economics over conventional bloom casting are due to higher productivity, lower rolling costs and improved energy efficiency. As with many other innovations, the relatively conservative steel industry needed some time to accept this revolutionary concept. Its successful application depended on the inter-disciplinary co-operation and on the optimizing of casting and rolling process. This pioneering effort immediately attracted wide interest not only in the steel industry, but also by academia, e.g., in studying the solidification pattern of this complex strand shape. Nevertheless, it took another five years until the next beam blank caster got off the ground at Mizushima works of Kawasaki Steel Corporation. Continuous casting and rolling of beam blank has become a common practice in the steel beam production. Development in recent years concentrates in casting near net shape beam blanks. The difference between the conventional and near net shape beam blank is showed in Fig. 1. Conventional beam blank has a relatively thicker flange, usually over 100 mm, while the near net shape beam blank has a flange thickness less than 100 mm, usually with a lower limit 50 mm in the practice. Dozens, even a hundred beams can be produced through rolling only one beam blank. Fig 1 Conventional and near net shape beam blanks Beam blank...