Basics of Hydraulics and Hydraulic Systems Nov07

Basics of Hydraulics and Hydraulic Systems...

Basics of Hydraulics and Hydraulic Systems Hydraulics is the generation of forces and motion using hydraulic fluids which represents the medium for the transmission of power. Hydraulic systems are extremely important for the operation of heavy equipments. The word ‘hydraulics’ is based on the Greek word for water and originally meant the study of the physical behaviour of water at rest and in motion. Today, the meaning has been expanded to include the physical behaviour of all liquids, including hydraulic fluids. Hydraulic systems are not new to the industry. They have provided a means for the operation of many types of industrial equipments. As the industrial equipments have become more sophisticated, newer systems with hydraulic power are being developed. Hydraulic systems are used in modern production plants and manufacturing installations and they play a major role in steel industry, mining, construction and materials handling equipment. Hydraulic systems are used to operate implements to lift, push and move materials. Wide range of applications of hydraulic systems in the industry has only started since 1950s. Since then, this form of power has become standard to the operation of industrial equipments. Today hydraulic systems hold a very important place in modern automation technology. There are many reasons. Some of these are that hydraulic systems are versatile, efficient and simple for the transmission of power. Transmission of power is the job of the hydraulic system, as it changes power from one form to another. In hydraulic systems, forces that are applied by the fluid are transmitted to a mechanical mechanism. To understand how hydraulic systems operate, it is necessary to understand the principles of hydraulics. Hydraulics is the study of liquids in motion and pressure in pipes and cylinders. The science of hydraulics can be divided into two...

Treatment of Industrial Wastewater Mar20

Treatment of Industrial Wastewater...

Treatment of Industrial Wastewater Water is used in the industry for process needs, for cooling, for steam generation, for dust suppression and many other uses. Industrial wastewater is the aqueous discard that results after the water is used for the above purposes. Industrial wastewater is the result of substances other than water having being dissolved or suspended in water. Treatment of industrial wastewater covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way or other due to use of the water in the above activities. The objective of treatment is to remove the dissolved and suspended substances of the wastewater so that treated water can be safely discharged into the environment or can be recycled back in the same process or can be used in a different process. Constituents of wastewater Industrial wastewater contains the following constituents that need proper treatment. Suspended solids – These are the contaminants that are visible to the naked eye and can generally be filtered out of the water using common filter paper. Although there is no hard and fast definition, suspended solids tend to be larger than 1 – 2 microns in size. If the water is left to stand without disturbing it, the suspended solids will settle to the bottom of the container over time. Dissolved solids – These are contaminants that are not visible to the naked eye and cannot be removed from the water by filtration. The dissolved solids are defined as the materials that are generally smaller than 0.45 microns in size. The dissolved solids are either normally soluble substances or inversely soluble substances. The normally soluble substances are those materials that become more soluble with increasing temperature. The inversely soluble substances normally referred to as ‘hardness’ ions and...