Energy Conservation in a Steel Plant...

Energy Conservation in a Steel Plant Production of iron and steel is an energy intensive manufacturing process and needs natural resources (including the energy resource) in large amounts. Energy cost is one of the major costs in the operation of the steel plant. The energy efficiency and hence the energy consumption of the steel plant varies depending on production route, type of iron ore and coal used, the steel product mix, operation control technologies employed, and material efficiency of the plant. Conservation of energy is one of the most effective ways to improve the energy efficiency, to reduce the energy consumption, and to lower the costs with an added benefit of reducing the impact of the steel plant on the environment. In recent years, the need for a more rational and efficient use of energy has emerged as a strategic and urgent issue. The rational use of the energy resource is being regarded as a twofold issue, a first aspect being related to the achieved consciousness of the limited availability of energy, regarded as a source, and the second being represented by a mature appreciation of the costs incurred to procure energy. The cost of energy is not only the important motivation for the steel plant management to make efforts towards energy conservation and to increase the energy efficiency of the processes but the threat of energy shortages is leading the management to take steps for the conservation of the energy. Energy conservation also helps the steel plant towards its societal goal towards reduction of the generation of greenhouse gases. The composition and local conditions of each steel plant is different, and based on each unique situation the most favourable selection of energy conservation opportunities are required to be made to address to the...

Energy Audit in an Integrated Iron and Steel Plant...

Energy Audit in an Integrated Iron and Steel Plant Energy audit is a key requirement for an integrated iron and steel plant which helps it to identify and realize energy efficiency improvements in a systematic way. It assists the steel plant management in understanding how it uses energy and helps to identify the areas where waste occurs and where opportunities for improvement exist. Energy audit is the inspection, examination, analysis and evaluation of the physical and financial processes of the steel plant relating to the use of the energy. The aim of the energy audit is to systematically identify the potential for saving energy and make recommendations for improvement. Energy audit is the key to a systematic approach for decision making in the area of energy management.It attempts to balance the total energy inputs with its use, and serves to identify all the energy streams in the steel plant. It quantifies energy usage according to its discrete functions. It is an effective tool in defining and pursuing comprehensive management of the energy usage in various processes of the steel plant. Energy audit helps to understand more about the ways energies and fuels are used in various processes of the steel plant. It helps in identifying the areas where waste of energy is occurring and where scope for improvement in energy consumption exists. It gives a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction and helps to keep focus on variations which occur in the availability and reliability of supply of energies and their costs, decide on appropriate energy mix, identify energy conservation technologies, retrofit for energy conservation equipment etc. It is the translation of conservation ideas into realities, by identifying technically feasible solutions with economic and other organizational considerations within a specified time frame. Energy...

Coke Oven Gas generation and usage Apr10

Coke Oven Gas generation and usage...

Coke Oven Gas generation and usage During the carbonization of coking coal in a coke oven battery for the production of coke, around 25-30% of the coal charged is driven off as effluent gases rich in volatile matter and moisture. This gas is known as coke oven gas (CO gas). In the non recovery or heat recovery coke ovens this gas is burnt in the oven itself and provides the required heat for the carbonization of coal. In case of by product battery, the evolved gas is removed as raw gas and is treated in a byproduct plant to give a clean fuel gas. In the byproduct plant, condensable, corrosive and economically valuable components are removed. During the cycle of coking, the gas is produced during majority of the coking period. The composition and rate of evolution of the CO gas changes during the period and the evolution of CO gas is normally complete by the time the coal charge in the battery reaches 700 deg C. The final yield of clean coke oven gas after treatment in the byproduct plant is around 300 N Cum per ton of dry coal. The yield of gas is dependent upon i) volatile matter in the charge coal and ii) carbonization condition. The density of CO gas at standard temperature and pressure is 0.545 Kg/Cum. The raw CO gas may contain hydrogen and methane, ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ethane, ethylene, benzene, oxygen and nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, water vapor, cyclopentadiene, toluene, naphthalene, hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen, and nitric oxide. The typical composition of the main components in the raw coke oven gas is in Tab Tab 1  Typical analysis of Raw coke oven  gas Component Unit Dry basis Actual composition Water saturated at   80 deg. C Water...