Industrial Heating Furnaces and their Types...

Industrial Heating Furnaces and their Types A furnace is equipment which is used as a reactor, or for melting of metals for casting, or to heat materials to change their shape (e.g. rolling, forging etc.) or properties (heat treatment). Industrial furnaces are mainly used for carrying out the process or for the purpose of heating. Furnaces which are used for carrying out the processes are sometimes known as reactors. Industrial furnaces which do not ‘show colour’, that is, in which the temperature is below 650 deg C are sometimes called ‘ovens’. However, the dividing line between ovens and furnaces is not very sharp. As an example, coke ovens operate at temperatures above 1400 deg C. In the ceramic industry, furnaces are called ‘kilns’. In the petrochemical and chemical process industries, furnaces are termed ‘heaters’, ‘kilns’, ‘afterburners’, ‘incinerators’, or ‘destructors’. The furnace of a boiler is known as its ‘firebox’ or ‘combustion chamber. Industrial heating furnaces are insulated enclosures designed to deliver heat to loads for many forms of heat processing. Furnaces used as reactors, and melting furnaces require very high temperatures and can involve erosive and corrosive conditions. Shaping operations need high temperatures to soften materials for processes such as forging, swaging, rolling, pressing, bending, and extruding etc. Heat treating operations need midrange temperatures to physically change crystalline structures or chemically (metallurgically) alter surface compounds, including hardening or relieving strains in metals, or modifying their ductility. These include aging, annealing, normalizing, tempering, austenitizing, carburizing, hardening, malleabilizing, nitriding, sintering, spheroidizing, and stress relieving etc. Industrial processes which use low temperatures include drying, coating, polymerizing, and chemical changes etc. Industrial heating operations encompass a wide range of temperatures, which depend partly on the material being heated and partly on the purpose of the heating process and...

Steel and Transmission of Electric Power...

Steel and Transmission of Electric Power  Transmission of electric power is a process by which the electric power produced at power plants is transported in bulk quantities over long distances for eventual use by consumers. The ultimate objective of electric power transmission is to provide power to customers economically, safely, reliably, efficiently, and with minimal environmental impact. Each of these aspects has one or more quantitative measure, such as price per kilowatt-hour, number and lethality of accidents, frequency and duration of service interruptions, generating plant heat rate, transmission and distribution losses, and emissions factors. Transmission systems are designed, and their individual components selected, with all of these objectives in mind, though they may be optimized differently in different systems. Power transmission process has got three main components (Fig 1). They are (i) substations, (ii) transmission poles and towers, and (iii) electricity conductors. Steel plays a major role in all these three components of transmitting power from the point of generation to the consumers. Fig 1 Components of power transmission process Steel use in substations Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Substation varies in size and configuration. Between the generating station and consuming point, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. A substation consists of (i) outdoor switch yard, (ii) a building which houses the control equipment, and (iii) the fencing. The outdoor switch yard has (i) structures at dead-end, (ii) static poles, and bus supports and equipment stands. It has also got the grounding arrangement. Structures at dead-end are those structures where the transmission line ends or angles off. They are typically constructed with heavier structural steels in case they are needed to carry heavier tension. The two most common dead-end...

Management of Energy in a Steel Plant...

Management of Energy in a Steel Plant In recent years, the need for a more rational and efficient management of energy has emerged as a strategic and urgent issue for an integrated iron and steel plant. Today energy plays an important role in the operation of the steel plant and inefficient use of energy has severe adverse effect on the plant bottom line. In fact, energy costs make up a large percentage of total operating costs. This has made the management of the steel plant to focus its attention on the use of energy in the plant and the efficient management of energy usage has become one of the prime objectives for the management of every steel plant. Active and efficient management of the energy not only helps in the energy conservation and minimization of environmental impact but it is also crucial in ensuring the competitiveness of the steel plant. There are no standard solutions which can fit into every plant towards the effective management of the energy, since each plant operates in an environment which is unique to it. However there are some guiding principles which help in the effective management of energies. There are several opportunities which are available at every steel plant to reduce the energy consumption in a cost effective manner. These opportunities are required to be exploited by proper and careful management of the energy. For achieving success and positive results from the effective management of energy, it requires commitment from all the levels and functions of the management of the steel plant, especially from the top management. Effective management of the energy results into the following. It provides opportunities to decrease the energy intensity/ton of crude steel. It provides best or good practices to utilize energy sources more...

Steam Turbine and Power Generation Feb28

Steam Turbine and Power Generation...

Steam Turbine and Power Generation A steam turbine is a mechanical device that converts thermal energy of the pressurized steam into useful mechanical work. It is the heart of a power plant. It has a higher thermodynamic efficiency and a lower power-to-weight ratio. It derives most of its thermodynamic efficiency because of the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible process. Steam turbines are one of the most versatile and oldest prime mover technologies being used to drive a generator. Power generation using steam turbines has been in use for more than 100 years. A turbo generator is the combination of a turbine directly connected to a generator for the generation of electrical power. Large steam power generators provide the majority of the electric power. Steam turbines are ideal for very large power configurations used in power plants because of their higher efficiencies and lower costs. In a power plant, the steam turbine is attached to a generator to produce electrical power. The turbine acts as the more mechanical side of the system by providing the rotary motion for the generator, while the generator acts as the electrical side by employing the laws of electricity and magnetism to produce electrical power. In a steam turbine rotor is the spinning component that has wheels and blades attached to it. The blade is the component that extracts energy from the steam. A typical schematic diagram of afossil fuel powered steam turbine based  power plant for electricity generation is given in Fig 1  Fig 1 Schematic diagram for steam turbine based power generation The energy conversion process Steam has the following three components of energy components Kinetic energy –  by virtue of its velocity Pressure energy...