Blast Furnace Tuyeres and Tuyere Stocks May29

Blast Furnace Tuyeres and Tuyere Stocks...

Blast Furnace Tuyeres and Tuyere Stocks The blast furnace (BF) has the objective of extracting the hot metal (liquid iron) from iron ore lump, sinter and/or pellet, coke and injected fuel. This objective is achieved by passing a hot enriched air flow (hot blast air) through the ore and coke burden which goes down in the internal column of the BF. The hot blast air and auxiliary fuel are injected into the blast furnace through tuyeres located around the perimeter of the BF. The upper zone of the hearth wall of the blast furnace contains the openings for the tuyeres which are used to introduce the hot blast air into the furnace. The furnace jacket in the tuyere zone contains steel reinforced openings within which copper (Cu) cooled elements are installed, similar to that shown in Fig 1. The steel reinforcements in the jacket are called tuyere cooler holders. The large Cu cooler which is installed within the machined inner surface of the cooler holder is called the tuyere cooler. The Cu cooler which actually introduces the hot blast air into the furnace is called the tuyere. It is installed within a machined, inner seating surface on the tuyere cooler. The blowpipe is part of the tuyere stock air distribution piping, which delivers the hot blast air from the bustle pipe, and which mates with the tuyere, to direct the hot blast air into the furnace. The tuyere breast walls are usually made of carbon brick and the cooling is generally external with jacketed cooling channels on the outside of the shell. Some furnaces have internal staves in the tuyere breast between the tuyere coolers as a cooling design for the tuyere breast. Fig 1 also shows the arrangement of the tuyere cooler holder,...

Pipe Fittings

Pipe Fittings In a steel plant there are large numbers of pipe networks. These pipe networks use a large number of pipe fittings. These pipe fittings are of various types, shapes and sizes. Pipe fittings allow pipes to be joined or installed in the appropriate place and terminated or closed wherever necessary. They can be expensive, require time, and different materials and tools to install. They are an essential part of piping systems. There are thousands of specialized fittings manufactured. Each type of pipe or tube requires its own type of fitting, but usually all pipe fittings share some common features. The basic purpose of using pipe fittings in pipe systems is to connect the bores of two or more pipes or tubes. Pipe fittings are used in piping systems normally (i) to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, (ii) to adapt to different sizes or shapes, (iii) to branch or re-direct the piping system, (iv) if necessary to provide a jointing method if two dissimilar piping materials are used in the one system, and (v) for other purposes, such as regulating, measuring or changing the direction of the fluid flow or to connect up threaded pipe and equipment. They are also used to close or seal a pipe. Fittings for pipe and tubing are most often made from the same base material as the pipe or tubing being connected, e.g., stainless steel, steel, copper or plastic. However, any material that is allowed by code may be used, but must be compatible with the other materials in the system, the fluids being transported, and the temperatures and pressures inside and outside of the system. Fittings (especially uncommon types) require money, time, materials, and tools to install, so they are not a trivial part of the...