Corporate Social Responsibility...

Corporate Social Responsibility The present century is characterized by unprecedented challenges and opportunities, arising from globalization, the desire for inclusive development and the imperatives of climate change. Globally it is being recognized now that integrating social, environmental and ethical responsibilities into the governance of businesses ensures long term success, competitiveness and sustainability. This approach also reaffirms the view that businesses are an integral part of society, and have a critical and active role to play in the sustenance and improvement of healthy ecosystems, in fostering social inclusiveness and equity, and in upholding the essentials of ethical practices and good governance. This also makes business sense as companies with effective corporate social responsibility (CSR), have image of socially responsible companies, achieve sustainable growth in their operations in the long run and their products and services are preferred by the customers. The idea of CSR first came up in 1953 when it became an academic topic in HR Bowen’s ‘Social Responsibilities of the Business’. The term “corporate social responsibility” became popular in the 1960s and has remained a term use since then. Definitions of CSR Although the idea of CSR has been around for more than half a century, still there is no single universally accepted definition of CSR. All the definitions which are prevalent these days underpin the impact that businesses have on society at large and the expectations of the society on them. Various definitions which are prevalent today are given below. The European Commission (EC) has previously defined CSR as ‘a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis’. In October 2011 the EC published a new policy on corporate social responsibility. The Commission defines corporate social responsibility...

Dry Cooling of Coke Apr25

Dry Cooling of Coke

Dry Cooling of Coke Dry cooling of coke is known as coke dry quenching (CDQ) and is an alternative to the traditional wet quenching.  During wet quenching of run of oven coke, sensible heat of the hot coke is dissipated into the atmosphere and is lost. In addition there are air borne emissions (0.5 ton of steam per ton of coke laden with phenol, cyanide, sulfide and dust) and a large quantity of water (around 0.6 Cu m per ton of coke) is needed for wet quenching. The contaminants in water are also discharged in the environment. In a Coke Dry Cooling Plant (CDCP) red hot coke is cooled by inert gases. The heat energy from the red hot coke is recovered in a waste heat boiler for use as steam, resulting in energy conservation as well as a reduction in coke particle emissions.  Around 80 % of sensible heat is recovered. The CDCP process flow is in Fig 1. Fig 1 Process flow in CDCP History After pilot and pilot/commercial trials the first full scale CDCP installation was commissioned in 1965 at the Cherepovets Iron and Steel Works in then USSR. By 1978 around 50 CDCP modules of 56 tons per hour were in operation in then USSR. Japan purchased license from USSR and three Japanese installations were commissioned in 1976 – 77. In India MECON purchased license for Giprokoks design CDCP from USSR and the first 12 chambers were installed at Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The first CDCP plant was commissioned in September 1989. Presently 19 chambers of this design are in operation. Concept of Coke Dry Cooling Hot coke is brought from the battery to the CDCP in bottom opening bucket kept on the quenching car. This bucket is lifted at the...

Metallurgical coke

Metallurgical coke Metallurgical coke or Met coke in short is a hard carbon material produced in the process of the “destructive distillation” of various blends of bituminous coal. It is produced by carbonization of coal at high temperatures (1100°C) in an oxygen deficient atmosphere in a coke oven. A good quality coke is generally made from carbonization of good quality coking coals. Coking coals are defined as those coals that on carbonization pass through softening, swelling, and re-solidification to coke. One important consideration in selecting a coal blend is that it should not exert a high coke oven wall pressure and should contract sufficiently to allow the coke to be pushed from the oven. The properties of coke and coke oven pushing performance are influenced by following coal quality and battery operating variables: rank of coal, petrographic, chemical and rheologic characteristics of coal, particle size, moisture content, bulk density, weathering of coal, coking temperature and coking rate, soaking time, quenching practice, and coke handling. Coke quality variability is low if all these factors are controlled. The coal-to-coke transformation takes place as follows: The heat is transferred from the heated brick walls into the coal charge. From about 375°C to 475°C, the coal decomposes to form plastic layers near each wall. At about 475°C to 600°C, there is a marked evolution of tar, and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, followed by re-solidification of the plastic mass into semi-coke. At 600°C to 1100°C, the coke stabilization phase begins. This is characterized by contraction of coke mass, structural development of coke and final hydrogen evolution. During the plastic stage, the plastic layers move from each wall towards the center of the oven trapping the liberated gas and creating in gas pressure build up which is transferred to the heating...