Steels for Automotive Applications...

Steels for Automotive Applications Steel has been a leader in automobile applications since 1920s. Currently, steel is the primary material in body and chassis structures. It is the backbone of the entire vehicle. In cars, these days, steel makes up about 65 % weight. It plays many roles in present day vehicles. It protects occupants, provides positive driving experience, reacts to road loads, provides comforts, and provides attachment points to other components of the vehicle. As there is a high emphasis on greenhouse gas reductions and improving fuel efficiency in the transportation sector, the automobile industry is investing significantly in lightweight materials. The industry is moving towards the objective of increasing the use of lightweight materials. It is giving priority to the activities connected with the development of new materials, forming technologies, and manufacturing processes. The weight reduction is still the most cost-effective means to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gases. It has been estimated that for every 10 % of weight eliminated from a vehicle’s total weight, fuel economy improves by 7 %. This also means that for every kilogram of weight reduced in a vehicle, there is around 20 kg of carbon dioxide reduction. Over the last decade, a strong competition between steel and low density metals has been observed in the automobile industry due to the increasing requirements of passenger safety, vehicle performance and fuel economy. The materials used in automotive industry need to fulfill several criteria before being approved. Some of the criteria are the results of regulation and legislation with the environmental and safety concerns and some are the requirements of the automobile users. In many occasions, different factors are conflicting and therefore a successful automobile design is only be possible through an optimized and balanced solution. Around 65...