HYL Process for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore Apr22

HYL Process for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore...

HYL Process for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore HYL process is designed for the conversion of iron ore (pellet/lump ore) into metallic iron, by the use of reducing gases in a solid-gas moving bed reactor. Oxygen (O2) is removed from the iron ore by chemical reactions based on hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) for the production of highly metallized direct reduced iron (DRI)/hot briquetted iron (HBI). HYL process is presently marketed under ‘Energiron’ trademark. HYL process for direct reduction of iron ore was the fruition of research efforts begun by Hojalata y L.mina, S.A. (later known as Hylsa), at the beginning of the 1950s. After the initial evaluation of the concept, it was decided to install a process using a tunnel furnace and several runs were undertaken. The first batch was made by using an ancient furnace (which had been built to heat plate) on the 5th of July, 1950. One part of crushed ore of size ranging from 12 mm to 25 mm was mixed with 40 % coke breeze and 15 % limestone of the same granulometry as the ore. This mixture was put into clay crucibles and into 2 iron pipes, each one with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 1 meter. 20 kg of good quality of DRI was produced. The first gas based plant, with a design capacity of 50 tons per day, was unable to reach acceptable levels of metallization. During the 18 months of its operation, it underwent several changes, including the installation of a natural gas reformer with the object of improving the reducing gas. Finally, its operation was suspended during early 1955. After this discouraging attempt, several experiments were carried out and a pilot plant was assembled to put the new...

Coke Oven Gas Injection in a Blast Furnace Jul19

Coke Oven Gas Injection in a Blast Furnace...

Coke Oven Gas Injection in a Blast Furnace  The iron and steel industry is one of the main consumer of energy and hence responsible for high emissions of carbon di oxide (CO2). Despite remarkable decrease in specific CO2 emissions by most of the steel plants, the total amount of CO2 emissions is growing across worldwide due to the continuous increasing of steel production which has reached to a level of 1606 million tons in 2013. Nowadays the steel industry is facing an increasing demand to minimize the energy consumption and gas emissions especially from ironmaking processes. The efficient use of byproduct gases is essentially important for the profitability of steel plant operation due to the high energy volumes and the costs involved. The injection of coke oven gas (COG) into the modern blast furnace is one of effective measures for steel industry to achieve low carbon ironmaking, energy saving and emission reduction. Coke is an essential input to the iron making process and is produced by heating coal in coke ovens. To make coke, coal is heated in the absence of oxygen to drive volatile matter from it. COG is produced as a byproduct of the process in case of byproduct coke oven batteries normally installed in steel plants. The specific amount of COG generated during coke making in the byproduct coke ovens is in the range from 290 to 340 N cum/t of coal charge depending on the volatile matters in the coal charge. The COG is currently used after its cleaning from tar, naphthalene, raw benzene, ammonia, and sulfur for heating of blast furnace stoves, ignition furnaces in sintering plant, heating furnace in rolling mills and electric power generation in power plant. The COG has a composition which consists of around 55...

Production of DRI with Coke Oven Gas as Reductant Jul05

Production of DRI with Coke Oven Gas as Reductant...

Production of DRI with Coke Oven Gas as Reductant  Direct reduced iron (DRI) is technically defined as iron ore which has been reduced to metal without melting it. A DRI production process is one in which the solid metallic iron is obtained directly from solid iron ore without subjecting the ore or the metal to fusion. Major DRI production processes are either gas based or coal based. Feed material in a DRI process is either iron ore sized to 10 to 30 mm or iron ore pellets produced in an iron ore pellet plant. In the gas based plant the reactor, where the reduction reaction takes place, is a shaft furnace.  The shaft furnace works on counter current principle where the iron bearing feed material moves downward in the furnace by gravity and gets reduced by the up flowing reducing gases. In a gas based process gaseous fuels are used. These fuels should be able to reform or crack to produce a mixture of H2 (hydrogen) and CO (carbon monoxide) gas. High methane containing natural gas is the most commonly used gas. Natural gas is reformed to enrich with H2 and CO mixture and this enriched and reformed gas mixture is preheated. Coke oven gas (COG) is a byproduct of the coke making process in byproduct coke oven battery. COG consists of a complex mixture of various gases. Its composition typically consists of 55 % H2, 6 % CO, 25 % CH4 (methane), plus small percentages of CO2 (Carbon dioxide), H2O (moisture), heavy tars, volatile hydrocarbons and sulphur impurities. It also contains some N2 (nitrogen). COG is typically used as fuel gas for various heating applications within the steel plant, and surplus COG is used to produce steam, electrical power or is flared. Use...