Importance of Housekeeping and Cleanliness at Workplace...

Importance of Housekeeping and Cleanliness at Workplace Housekeeping and cleanliness at the workplace are closely linked to the industrial safety. The degree, to which these activities are effectively managed, is an indicator of the safety culture of the organization. Housekeeping and cleanliness not only make the organization a safer place to work in but also provide a big boost to the image of the organization. These activities also (i) improve efficiency and productivity, (ii) helps in maintaining good control over the processes, and (iii) assist in maintaining the quality of the product. These important aspects of housekeeping and cleanliness are shown in Fig 1. Fig1 Important aspects of housekeeping and cleanliness There are several signs which reflect poor housekeeping and cleanliness at the workplace in the organization. Some of these signs are (i) cluttered and poorly arranged work areas, (ii) untidy or dangerous storage of materials (such as materials stuffed in corners and overcrowded shelves etc.), (iii) dusty and dirty floors and work surfaces, (iv) items lying on the shop floor which are in excess or no longer needed, (v) blocked or cluttered aisles and exits, (vi) tools and equipment left in work areas instead of being returned to proper storage places, (vii) broken containers and damaged materials, (vii) overflowing waste bins and containers, and (viii) spills and leaks etc. Housekeeping and cleanliness refer to the processes which ensure facilities, equipment, work areas and access routes are kept in good condition. This condition is required for supporting safe and reliable operation and maintenance during normal plant operation. Additionally, during the emergency, housekeeping and cleanliness ensure that the plant operations are not inhibited. Further, the housekeeping and cleanliness both are interrelated. Reaching a good standard in one of them is difficult without reaching a good...

Historical aspects of the Continuous Casting and related Technologies for Steel Mar06

Historical aspects of the Continuous Casting and related Technologies for Steel...

Historical aspects of the Continuous Casting and related Technologies for Steel Continuous casting (CC) technology of steel, as a method of solidification processing of liquid steel has a relatively short history —not much longer than oxygen steelmaking. Different to other processes in steel production, continuous casting is the vital link between the liquid and the solid phase and has to live with metallurgical effects as well as mechanical challenges at the same time. Continuous casting transforms liquid steel into solid on a continuous basis and includes a variety of important commercial processes. These processes are the most efficient way to solidify large volumes of liquid steel into simple shapes for subsequent processing. The CC ratio for the world steel industry is now around 96 % of crude steel output which was a mere 4 % in 1970. Continuous casting is distinguished from other solidification processes by its steady state nature. The liquid steel solidifies against the mould walls while it is simultaneously withdrawn from the bottom of the mould at a rate which maintains the solid / liquid interface at a constant position with time. The process works best when all of its aspects operate in this steady-state manner. Relative to other casting processes, continuous casting generally has a higher capital cost, but lower operating cost. It is the most cost- and energy- efficient method to mass-produce semi-finished steel products with consistent quality in a variety of sizes and shapes. Cross-sections can be rectangular, for subsequent rolling into plate or sheet, square or circular for long products and seamless pipes, and even dog-bone shapes, for rolling into I or H beams. Today continuous casting machines consist of modularized technological/mechatronic packages to allow fast design and short project execution time as well as rapid production ramp-up...