Production of Ferro-Chrome Jul10

Production of Ferro-Chrome...

Production of Ferro-Chrome Ferro-chrome (Fe-Cr) is an alloy comprised of iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr) used primarily in the production of stainless steel. The ratio in which the two metals (Fe and Cr) are combined can vary, with the proportion of Cr ranging between 50 % and 70 %. Fe-Cr is frequently classified by the ratio of Cr to carbon (C) it contains. The vast majority of Fe-Cr produced is the ‘charge chrome’. It has a lower Cr to C ratio and is most commonly produced for use in stainless steel production. The second largest produced Fe-Cr ferro-alloy is the ‘high carbon Fe-Cr (HC Fe-Cr) which has a higher content of Cr and is being produced from higher grade chromite ore. Other grades of Fe-Cr are ‘medium carbon Fe-Cr’ (MC Fe-Cr) and ‘low carbon Fe-C (LC Fe-Cr). MC Fe-Cr is also known as intermediate carbon Fe-Cr and can contain upto 4 % of carbon. LC Fe-Cr typically has the Cr content of minimum 60 % with C content ranging from 0.03 % to 0.15 %.  However C content in LC Fe-Cr can be upto 1 %. Ferro-chrome (Fe-Cr) alloy is essential for the production of stainless steel and special steels which are widely used and are of high quality, typically characterized by a high corrosion resistance and a low tendency to magnetization. The processing cycle of Fe-Cr involves the chemical reduction of the chromite ore. Smelting of HC Fe-Cr ferro-alloy HC Fe-Cr and charge chrome are normally produced by the conventional smelting process utilizing carbo-thermic reduction of chromite ore (consisting oxides of Cr and Fe) using an electric submerged arc furnace (SAF) or a DC (direct current) open arc electric furnace. In SAF, the energy to the furnace is predominantly supplied in a resistive...