Corrosion of Cast Steels...

Corrosion of Cast Steels Cast steels are generally classified into the categories of (i) carbon (C) steels, (ii) low alloy steels, (iii) corrosion resistant steels, and (iv) heat resistant steels, depending on the alloy content and the planned usage. Steel castings are categorized as corrosion resistant if they are capable of sustained operation when exposed to attack by corrosive agents at operating temperatures which are generally below 300 deg C. The high alloy iron base compositions are generally given the name ‘stainless steels’, though this name is not recognized universally. Actually, these steels are widely referred to as cast stainless steels. Some of the high alloy steels (e.g. 12 % chromium steel) show many of the familiar physical characteristics of C steels and low alloy steels, and some of their mechanical properties, such as hardness and tensile strength (TS), can be altered by suitable heat treatment. The alloy steels of higher chromium (Cr) content (20 % to 30 % Cr), Cr-Ni (nickel)  steels and Ni-Cr steels do not show the changes in phase observed in ordinary C steel when heated or cooled in the range from room temperature to the melting point. Consequently, these steels are non hardenable, and their mechanical properties depend on the composition instead of heat treatment. The high alloy steels (stainless steels) differ from C steels and low alloy steels in other respects, such as their production and properties. Special attention is required to be given to each grade with regard to casting design and casting practice in the foundry. For example, such elements as Cr, Ni, C, N2 (nitrogen), Si (silicon), Mo (molybdenum), and Nb (niobium) can exert a deep impact on the ultimate structure of these complex steels. Hence, balancing of the alloy compositions is normally required to...

Cast Steels and Steel Castings...

Cast Steels and Steel Castings Steel casting is a specialized form of casting involving various types of steels. Steel castings are used when cast irons cannot deliver enough strength or shock resistance. A steel casting is the product formed by pouring liquid steel into a mould cavity. The liquid steel cools and solidifies in the mould cavity and is then removed for cleaning. Heat treatment may be needed to meet desired properties. This process provides the near net shape and mechanical properties required for meeting the specifications. The differences between steel castings and wrought steels are principally in the method of production. In the case of wrought steel cast ingots, slabs, blooms, and billets are mechanically worked to produce flat, sectional or tubular products. However, steel castings are produced in the final product (near net shape product) form without any intermediate mechanical working. The making of a steel casting is a long and complex process. A large investment in capital equipment is required for the melting of steel, manufacturing of cores and moulds and the cleaning and heat treating of castings. Additional major investments for support equipment and facilities are required for sand reclamation systems, dust collection devices and bulk material handling systems etc. Steel castings are used for vitally important components in the mining, railways, automotive, construction, military, and various industries including oil and gas industries. Steel castings are specified for applications which require weldability, abrasion resistance, high strength, low and high temperature service and corrosion resistance. Though there are large numbers of steel foundries, yet due to the diversity of market requirements such as size, tolerances, chemistry, volume, etc., a single foundry cannot serve all of the market and each foundry tends to specialize in a portion of the total market. Some of the specialized...

Role of Mould in Continuous Casting of Steel May21

Role of Mould in Continuous Casting of Steel...

Role of Mould in Continuous Casting of Steel  Moulds play an important role in the process of continuous casting of liquid steel. They are the heart of the continuous casting process. In the process of continuous casting, liquid steel is poured from the tundish into the casting mould through the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) immersed in the liquid steel. The moulds are water cooled. Solidification of liquid begins in the mould by indirect cooling. The cooling process in the mould is known as primary cooling process. In the mould, a thin shell of steel next to the mould walls solidifies before the middle section. This is called a strand and leaves the base of the mould into a spray chamber. The bulk of liquid steel within the walls of the strand is still molten. The strand is immediately supported by closely spaced, water cooled rollers which support the walls of the strand against the ferrostatic pressure of the still solidifying liquid steel within the strand. To increase the rate of solidification, the strand is sprayed with large amounts of water as it passes through the spray chamber. This is the secondary cooling process. Final solidification of the strand may take place after the strand has left the spray chamber. The function of continuous casting mould is to receive the liquid steel and guarantee a rapid heat transfer to the cooling water to enable quick solidification. The liquid steel, when leaving the mould, must exhibit a just thick enough outer shell to prevent it from splashing over the continuous casting machine parts. The mould is to serve this function. After the mould further cooling of the steel strand is done through the faster direct cooling with the help of the direct water sprays. Solidification arises from the dynamic...