Liquefied Petroleum Gas- its Characteristics and Safety Requirements...

Liquefied Petroleum Gas- its Characteristics and Safety Requirements  Liquefied petroleum gas is  a gas used in steel plants as a fuel gas for heating in various furnaces and in flame cutting machines of continuous casting machines. It is popularly known by its  abbreviation or short form which is LPG. LPG is also used for oxy-LPG gas cutting and welding. Sometimes it is used for carburization of steel, flame heating, flame gouging, flame hardening, flame cleaning, and flame straightening. Liquid petroleum gases were discovered in 1912 when Dr. Walter Snelling, an American scientist, realized that these gases could be changed into liquids and stored under moderate pressure. From 1912 and 1920, LP gas uses were developed. The first LPG cook stove was made in 1912, and the first LPG  fueled car was developed in 1913. The LPG industry began sometime shortly before World War 1. At that time, a problem in the natural gas distribution process cropped up. Gradually facilities were built to cool and compress natural gas, and to separate the gases that could be turned into liquids (including propane and butane). LPG was sold commercially by 1920. Like all fossil fuels, LPG is a non renewable source of energy. It is extracted from crude oil and natural gas. It is a safe, clean burning, reliable, high calorific value fuel. The main composition of LPG are hydrocarbons containing three or four carbon atoms. The normal components of LPG thus, are propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) (Fig 1). Small concentrations of other hydrocarbons may also be present. Depending on the source of the LPG and how it has been produced, components other than  hydrocarbons may also be present. CAS number of LPG gas is 68476-85-7  while its UN number is 1075. CAS number for propane is...

Converter Gas, its Characteristics and Safety Requirements...

Converter Gas, its Characteristics and Safety Requirements During the process of steel making in the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), significant amount of gases, rich in carbon monoxide content, are generated during the blow time at a temperature of 950 deg C. This gas is termed as converter gas or BOF gas. Converter gas is also known as LD gas. It is a byproduct gas produced during the production of liquid steel in a basic oxygen furnace (converter), where impurities of hot metal are oxidized with oxygen gas. The main constituents of converter gas are carbon mono oxide (CO), carbon di oxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2).  Composition wise it is similar to blast furnace gas but with lesser percentage of nitrogen in it. Converter gas is dust laden at the converter mouth. The dust content is around 100 to 120 g/N cum. The recovered converter gas is cleaned in a venturi scrubber using water, followed by processing in the mist eliminators. The gas is then stored in gas holder for steady supply and cleaned further in the electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and finally fed to the gas distribution system. Wet type of gas cleaning plants have capabilities to reduce the dust content of the gas to a level of 5 mg/N cum. The composition of the gas varies from start to the end of the blow and this is a function of the blow time. In the oxygen rich phase (air ratio= 1) at the beginning and at the end of the blowing period the primary gas is burned completely and no gas is recovered during this period. During CO rich phase (air ratio less than 1) only partial oxidation takes place and a combustible waste gas is formed containing CO, H2, CO2 and...