Crude Benzol and its major Components...

Crude Benzol and its major Components Crude benzol is a product which is produced during carbonization of coking coal. Benzol (also called as benzole) is the name normally applied in the chemical industry to a mixture of hydrocarbons of the benzene series, in which benzene itself predominates, in association with certain of its homologues and various impurities. The term is not applied to any particular mixture or quality of the liquids. The recovery of benzol from the coke oven gas implies the removal of vapours of the benzene series, and their subsequent conversion by condensation into different liquid products. The CAS number of crude benzol is 65996-78-3. Benzol fraction produced during the high temperature carbonization of the coal is around 0.7 % to 1.1 % of dry coal. It is present in the coke oven gas in the range of 25 grams per normal cubic meters (g/N cum) to 40 g/N cum of coke oven gas. The benzene series is the most important group of substances in the class of aromatic hydrocarbons.  It is the series of carbon-hydrogen compounds based on the benzene ring, with the general formula CnH2n-6, where ā€˜nā€™ is 6 or more. Examples are benzene (C6H6), toluene (C7H8), and xylene (C8H10). The members of particular interest of this series are the first three namely benzene, toluene and xylene, which at normal temperatures are clear colourless liquids having very similar properties. Crude benzol also contains some amount of naphthalene (C10H8). Crude benzol is also known as light oil and contains small quantities of a large number of impurities which consists of the unsaturated and sulphur compounds. These impurities have negative effects on the organic processes. Even insignificant sulphur impurities in benzene and toluene used in organic processes cause fast poisoning of the catalyst, and resinous...

Coke Oven By-Product Plant Jan17

Coke Oven By-Product Plant...

Coke Oven By-Product Plant The coke oven by-product plant is an integral part of the by-product coke making process. During the production of coke by coal carburization in a coke oven battery a large amount gas is generated due to the vaporization of volatile matter in the coal. The gas is generated over most of the coking period, the composition and the rate of evolution changing during this period and being normally complete by the time coal charge temperature reaches 700 deg C. This gas is known as raw coke oven gas and is processed in the by-product plant. The functions of the by-product plant are to process the raw gas to recover valuable coal chemicals and to condition the gas so that it can be used as a clean, environmentally friendly fuel gas. After leaving the coke oven chambers, the raw coke oven gas is sprayed with flushing liquor so as to reduce its temperature to a reasonably low level and to condense the most easily condensable (high boiling point) components. The raw gas is cooled by adiabatic evaporation of some of the spray liquor to around 80 deg C and is water saturated. The temperature of the gas becomes sufficiently low so that it can be handled in the gas collecting mains. From the gas collecting main the raw coke oven gas flows into the suction main. The amount of flushing liquor sprayed into the hot gas leaving the oven chambers is far more than is required for cooling, and the remaining flushing liquor which is not evaporated provides a liquid stream in the gas collecting main. At this stage there are two streams namely a liquid condensate stream and a gas stream. The two streams pass through a butterfly control valve...