Automation in Steel Industry Dec29

Automation in Steel Industry...

Automation in Steel Industry Steel is an alloy of iron usually containing less than 1 % carbon. Because of its versatile properties and its recycling possibilities, steel is the basic material for sustained development in modern industrial society. It provides a broad  range of uses in almost all important sectors of industry such as apparatus and machinery manufacture, bridge and building construction, power and environmental engineering, and automotive and transportation industries. Steel is and will remain the most important engineering and construction material in the modern era. The steel industry is a very dynamic industrial sector. Further steps are ongoing towards increasing resource and energy efficiency, reducing emissions and providing safe and healthy work environments. For achieving this, the steel industry is to excel in today’s environment which is a highly dynamic and interactive business environment. Market conditions, new product requirements, raw material costs, and process management etc. all affects the performance of the steel industry. The steel industry is an important driving force of the economy and hence it should be run efficiently. Further it needs heavy investments and hence it is essential that it operates economically to keep it healthy. Its products are indispensable for other industries such as automotive and construction. Quality, reliability and economic efficiency in the production of steel products can only be ensured by means of automated manufacturing facilities. The processes of steel industry are highly energy intensive and comprised of many complex unit operations. Iron ore and coal need preprocessing before feeding into a reactor, and liquid metals from different reactors need to be carefully handled. Further liquid steel is to be converted into solid form and then rolled into finished products. Each of these operations has a stake in the quality of steel produced, and also needs...

Management of Man and Machine...

Management of Man and Machine Human intervention of the production processes has undergone a big change after automatic and computerized controls have been introduced for the production processes. A large number of activities previously done by human beings have been taken over by the automation. But this has not eliminated the need for operator for the running of the equipment/process though his role has changed a lot with the automation of the process. Today mass production would not exist without the usage of automated and flexible manufacturing processes. These automated processes need machines and equipments which require human intervention for controlling them. Close and harmonious interaction by operators with their machines is a necessity for the productive output. An integrated and coordinated communication between machines and the men operating them is needed for the productive output. The complexity of industrial processes has greatly increased during the last few decades. This tendency has originated due to a number of reasons, such as (i) the enlargement of the scale of the modern plants, (ii) the required specifications dealing with the product quality, (iii) the need for the energy conservation, (iv) the requirements for the environmental pollution control, (v) the necessity of safety in the plant, and (vi) the progress in process control and informatics creating totally new possibilities. This essential change in the process operation has led to the definition of new human operator tasks. In the last thirty years, human manual control has become much less important and human supervisory control has been developed as the main concept for man and machine interactions. The tasks of the human supervisor are now predominantly cognitive ones, and contain at least the following six subtasks namely (i) the monitoring of all data presented to the human supervisor, (ii)...