Probes, Instruments and measurements for Monitoring of Blast Furnace Jun28

Probes, Instruments and measurements for Monitoring of Blast Furnace...

Probes, Instruments and measurements for Monitoring of Blast Furnace A blast furnace (BF) works with the principle of countercurrent gas to solid heat exchange from tuyere raceway to the stock line and of a countercurrent oxygen (O2) exchange from fusion zone to the stock line. Solid burden materials consisting of ferrous materials (iron ore, sinter, and pellets), coke, and fluxing materials are charged into the top of the furnace, while air normally enriched with O2, and sometimes with auxiliary fuels is fed through the tuyeres near the bottom of the furnace. The usual retention time of the ferrous burden materials in the furnace may be as long as 8 hours, while that of the gas is a few seconds. However, the residence time of the coke in the hearth is much longer usually ranging from 1 week to 4 weeks. The liquid hot metal (HM) and liquid slag are tapped at regular intervals through a number of tapholes situated at the bottom of the furnace. The slag is separated from the hot metal which is handled through HM ladles. A blast furnace need to be operated with high productivity and low fuel rate in a flexible, stable and high efficiency manner and must have a long campaign life. The blast furnace is often referred to as black box because of the terms such as the furnace condition and furnace heat level which is currently in dominant use as well as since the blast furnace process has many unknown areas. The reason seems to be due to the difficulty in measurement, because, in a blast furnace, three phases of gas, solid, and liquid coexist, the reaction proceeds non-uniformly in radial direction, the process is accompanied by a time dependent variation, and the parameters to be...

Analytical Thinking Skills for Problem Solving...

Analytical Thinking Skills for Problem Solving Employees of an organization face a large number of problems of various natures in their work life. The employees need to have personal resilience to handle the challenges and pressure which the problems bring along with them. It becomes easier for them to solve those problems if they have analytical thinking approach to the problems, have the required analytical skills with them, and know the use of various analytical tools. Analytical thinking is a powerful thinking process for understanding the parts of a situation. It is defined as the ability to scrutinize and break down facts and thoughts into their strengths and weaknesses and developing the capacity to think in a thoughtful, discerning way, to solve problems, analyze data, and recall and use information. Analytical thinking skills enable the employees to think through issues and to focus on priorities for action.  It not only supports the problem-solving but also helps in judgment and decision-making, and ensures action is followed through. The employees’ capacity to demonstrate analytical thinking skills make them give importance to a rigorous, logical and reflective approach to situations and issues which help in turn to stick to the art of the possible, and prevents burn out. These skills also help the employees to make best use of the resources to secure improvements and to bring results. With analytical skills, employees are able to identify and define problems, extract key information from data and develop workable solutions for the problems identified in order to test and verify the cause of the problem and develop solutions to resolve the problems identified. Employees having analytical skills are able to (i) evaluate information or situations, (ii) break them down into their key components, (iii) consider various ways of approaching...

Stakeholder Management...

Stakeholder Management  Stakeholders refer to those people and groups who have a stake in some aspect of the organizational products, operations, markets, industry, or outcomes. Stake is an interest or a share in an undertaking and can be categorized as legal or moral. The stakeholders of an organization are the individuals, groups, or other organizations that are affected by and also affect the decisions and actions of the organization. Depending on the specific organization, stakeholders may include governmental agencies, statutory bodies, social activist groups, self regulatory organizations, employees, shareholders, customers, suppliers, distributors, media and even the community in which the organization is located among many others. An organization exists because of its ability to create valued goods and services and which yield acceptable outcomes for various groups of stakeholders, people who have an interest, claim, or stake in the organization, in what it does, and in how well it performs. In general, stakeholders are motivated to participate in an organization if they receive inducements that exceed the value of the contributions they are required to make. Inducements are rewards such as money, power, the support of beliefs or values, and organizational status. Contributions are the skills, knowledge, and expertise that the organization requires from the stakeholders during its task performance. Stakeholders can be categorized into two groups namely (i) primary stakeholders, and (ii) secondary stakeholders. Primary stakeholders have direct stake in the organization and its success. They are fundamental to its operations and survival.  These stakeholders include shareholders and investors, employees, customers, suppliers, and public stakeholders, such as government and the community. Secondary stakeholders influence and/or are affected by the organization but are neither engaged in transactions with the organization nor essential for its survival. These stakeholders are those that have a public or special...

Instrument Analysis of Steel, Slag and Raw Materials Jan25

Instrument Analysis of Steel, Slag and Raw Materials...

Instrument Analysis of Steel, Slag and Raw Materials Instrument analysis is widely used for the qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of raw materials, iron (hot metal), steel, slag, refractories, and sludges samples. Compared to the wet analysis, the advantage of instrument analysis is that it is cost effective and multi elemental besides being very fast. The worries caused by interfering elements in the wet chemical analysis are eliminated. Instrument analysis avoids the need of waiting several hours for certain elements, which is a necessity when the wet chemical methods are employed. Furthermore, instrument analysis provides a fairly uniform detection limit across a large list of elements or compounds and is applicable to a wide range of concentrations, ranging from 100 % to few parts per million (ppm). The instrumental methods are reproducible with lesser scope of human error because of lesser human intervention. They are rugged, reliable and accurate with the accuracy depends upon the calibration and the standards used for the calibration. The analysis of steel, slag and raw materials is important and essential not only during steel making process for the purpose of control but also for the large number of samples needed to be analyzed for various other purposes. The information from an analysis is useful for various purposes, such as the inspection of raw materials, intermediate product and end product, environmental assessment, process control, failure analysis, quality control of the products and for the purpose of research and development. History While the spectrograph had been used for quite some time in other fields, the first instrument to be used successfully for ferrous melting control was installed in a foundry in 1935. A Baird Spectrograph was installed in the Timken laboratory in 1943 for the analysis of tests from the melt...