Types of Energy used in a Steel Plants and Energy Conservation...

Types of Energy used in a Steel Plants and Energy Conservation Energy is needed to do any work. Energy can be in the form of potential energy or it can be in the form kinetic energy. Potential energy is stored energy and for doing the work it is to be released from the storage.  Common example of potential energy are fuel energy, chemical energy and  pressure energy etc. Kinetic energy is energy due to motion and example of kinetic energy is electric energy which is the movement of electrons. Energy conservation activities are the efforts made towards reduction in energy consumption for doing a work. These efforts can be in the form of reduction of energy wastages, recovery and recycling of waste energy, and/or by improving the energy efficiency of the processes. Various forms of energy used in an integrated steel plant are described below.  Fuel energy Fuel energy is the potential energy which constitutes the major component of all the form of energies used in the steel plant. Fuel energy is used in the form of primary fuels and the byproduct fuels. Primary fuels used in steel plant are (i) solid fuels, (ii) liquid fuels, and (iii) gaseous fuels. Byproduct fuels are mainly coke oven gas recovered during coking process of metallurgical coals, blast furnace gas recovered from blast furnace during the production of hot metal, converter gas recovered during the production of steel in the basic oxygen furnace process, and coal tar fuel produced during the cleaning of the raw coke oven gas produced while coking of the metallurgical coals. Solid fuels used in the steel plant are coal and/or coke. Solid fuels constitute the highest percentage of energy consumed in steel plant. Both metallurgical (coking) coals and non coking coals are...

Fuel gases used in steel industry...

Fuel gases used in steel industry Fuel gas is a fuel which under ordinary conditions is in the form of gas. Fuel gases are used in steel plants for different applications which include (i) a source of heat (ii) as a reductant and (iii) cutting and welding application. Fuel gases usually used in steel industry are natural gas (NG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), acetylene, by product gases (blast furnace gas, coke oven gas and converter gas). Natural gas Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel which is extracted from deposits in the earth. It is a mixture of hydro carbons consisting primarily of methane (generally greater than 80 %) but includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes such as ethane, propane and butane etc. It may even contain some small percentage of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. It is an odorless, colourless, tasteless and non toxic gas. Natural gas is lighter than air and it burns with a clean blue flame when mixed with the requisite amount of air and ignited. It is considered one of the cleanest burning fuels. On burning it produces primarily heat, carbon dioxide and water. Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters (corresponding to 0 deg C and I Kg/Sq cm pressure) or standard cubic feet (corresponding to 16 deg C and 14.73 psia pressures). The higher heat value of one cubic meter of natural gas varies from around 9500 Kcal to 10,000 Kcal. Its density is around 0.85 Kg/Cum. The main usage of natural gas in the steel industry is in iron making. For production of direct reduced iron it is reformed to produce reducing gases which are then used for the reduction of iron ore. The main reforming reactions are as follows. 2CH4...