Investigation of Accidents and Incidents...

Investigation of Accidents and Incidents An accident is an undesired event and is normally defined as an unplanned event which interrupts the completion of an activity, and which may or may not include injury to the person, damage to the property and environment, or loss to the process. An incident is also an undesired event and it usually refers to an unexpected event that did not cause injury or damage this time but had the potential. Near miss or dangerous occurrence are also terms for an event that might have caused harm but had not. The term incident is used in some situations to cover both an accident as well as an incident. There are two theories for accidents/incidents. These as briefly described below. WH Heinrich’s Domino theory – As per this theory the occurrence of an injury invariably results from a completed sequence of factors, the last one of these being the accident itself. The accident in turn is invariably caused or permitted directly by the unsafe act of a person and/or a mechanical or physical hazard. Multiple cause theory – This theory states that behind every accident/incident there are many contributing factors, causes, and sub causes. These factors combine in a random fashion causing accidents. Hence the fundamental root causes are to be found and removed to prevent a recurrence. Majority of accident prevention efforts are based on knowledge gained from earlier accidents/incidents and,  hence it is important to learn as much as possible from each accident/incident. Learning from accidents/incidents can be achieved by investigating them in detail. However these investigations are to be based on fact-finding instead of fault-finding. An accident/incident investigation is a well planned analysis of an event that identifies the root cause and recommends corrective action to prevent...

Glossary of Terms used for Safety Management in a Steel Plant...

Glossary of Terms used for Safety Management in a Steel Plant The glossary of terms normally used for safety management in a steel plant is given below. Accident – An unplanned event that results in harm to people, damage to property or loss to process. Accident causation – The many factors that act together to cause accidents. They include (i) personal factors, (ii) job factors, and (iii) factors related to lack of management control. Accident investigation – The process of systematically gathering and analyzing information about an accident. Accident prevention – The systematic application of recognized principles to reduce incidents, accidents, or the accident potential of a system or organization. Confined space – It is an area which is not designed for continuous human occupancy and has limited opening for entry, exit and ventilation. Contract employee (Contractor) – An individual supplied by an external company (contractor, sub contractor, consultant or vendor) on a full or part time basis and who is providing a service (production, maintenance, or administrative support) to the organization. The contractor safety, health and well being are primarily supervised by the external contractor’s supervisor or manager. He is paid by the external company directly. The external company presents an invoice for the contract for service to the organization. Controls – These are measures designed to eliminate or reduce hazards or hazardous exposures. Emergency plan – It is detailed procedures for responding to an emergency such as fire, explosion, chemical spill or an uncontrolled release of gas or energy. Emergency plan minimizes the effects of a disaster. Employee (Company employee) – Employee is a person who is on the payroll of the organization. He has an employee number that identifies the person as an employee of the organization and who is directly...

Safety in a Steel Plant – General Aspects...

Safety in a Steel Plant – General Aspects The health, safety and protection of employees, equipment and the environment are of serious concern in a steel plant since steel plant is an industry of hazardous nature.  The health and safety of employees is crucial since it affects both economic and social factors. It is necessary that steel plant management recognizes the advantages of safe work environments and progressively adopt safety management practices to prevent hazardous events, avoid production and manpower losses and fall outs associated with the accidents. Seriously following of safety practices also assists enhancement of employee’s knowledge of operation, results into improvement of technical procedures, maintenance of accurate process safety information and increase in overall plant productivity. A safe work place also contributes towards plants competitiveness as well as in profit growth. As per Board of Directors of World Steel Association, “Nothing is more important than the safety and health of the people who work in the steel industry”. Following of safety practices results reduction of risk to a level that is as low as is reasonably predictable. There are three imperatives for adopting safety practices. They are ethical, legal and financial. There is a moral obligation placed on the steel plant management to ensure that the work place and the work activities are safe. There are legal requirements defined for safe working. Safe working also reduces down time, improves workman’s morale and promotes systematic working, resulting into substantial reduction in the cost of production and financial savings. The nature of various types of accidents is shown by an iceberg of incidents (Fig 1). They are unsafe actions, incidents, minor injuries, lost time injuries, serious accidents and fatalities. Fig 1 The iceberg of accidents Every steel plant should aim at accident. To...